World History in Review
Compiled by Teresa Carr
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History is God’s providence in human affairs – Daniel Webster
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The following chart contains important events to prove that the Holy Bible is the infallible Word of God.
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58th – 31st Century B.C.
c. 5768-3100BC-Creation begins (Genesis 1-2). God creates the heavens and the earth in literally six days. On the seventh day God rested and blessed the sabbath day. God created man and woman called Adam and Eve. Adam and Eve are placed in the Garden of Eden at the head of the four rivers; Pishon (compassed the land of Havilah where there is gold, bdellium, and onyx stone. This is in present day Iran), Gihon (compassed the whole land of Ethiopia also known as Cush), Hiddekel (The Tigris, which goes towards the east of Assyria), and Euphrates. Fall of Adam (Genesis 3-5) the beginning of mankind. Cain murders Abel. Cain is banished by God to the land of Nod, on the east of Eden. Cain took a wife and beget son, Enoch. Enoch had sons (Genesis 4:18-24). Adam begats Seth (appointed). After he begat Seth, Adam was eight hundred years and he begat sons and daughters. To Seth was born a son, Enos (mortal). Seth lived nine hundred and twelve years and begat sons and daughters. Enos begat Cainan (sorrow) and lived eight hundred and fifteen years and begat sons and daughters. Cainan begat Mahalaleel (blessed). Mahalaleel begat Jared (God). Jared begat Enoch. Enoch begat Methuselah. It was then Enoch walked with God after he begat Methuselah. All the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years. Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him (Genesis 5:21-32; Micah 6:8; Jude 14; 2 Kings 2:10; Psalm 49:15). Methuselah lived after he begat Lamech seven hundred eighty two years and begat sons and daughters and lived nine hundred sixty and nine (969) years. Lamech was one hundred and eighty two and he begat a son, Noah. Lamech lived seven hundred seventy seven (777) years. Noah was five hundred years old and he begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth (Genesis 5:32). In Genesis 6:2 & v. 4, the sons of God (angels) saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all they chose. These were the ancestors of the giants, mighty men which were of old, men of renown (Num. 13:32, 33; Luke 17:27). About two thousand seven hundred years have passed and violence cover the earth (Genesis 6:3-8, 11-12), God stated to Noah that the Flood to judge the earth would come in 120 years. Noah is instructed to build an Ark and warn of the coming Flood (Genesis 6:13-18). At the time of the flood, Noah is six hundred years old. In the six hundredth year, on the second month of the seventeenth day came the flood. Noah and his family with the animals are the only ones saved in the Ark from The Great Deluge (Great Flood) that is worldwide (Genesis 7-9). Noah and all that were on the ark remained inside for one year until the waters receded. Through Noah’s three sons Shem, Ham, and Japheth all the people of the earth are established by three major civilizations: 1. Tigris Euphrates Valley Civilization (Middle East) from Shem, 2. Nile Valley Civilization (Egypt) from Ham, 3. Aegean Civilization (Europe) from Japheth.
32nd Century B.C.
c. 3100-1200BC-Nimrod, son of Cush the mighty hunter builds the Tower of Babel in Shinar (God confounds the people’s languages from one to many). And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar (Genesis 10:9-11). Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah (the city to this day is called Nimrud), and Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city. The mother of Nimrod was Queen Semiramis of Babylon, and later was also his wife—known as the ‘Queen of Heaven’ (Jeremiah 44:17, 25). Tigris Euphrates Valley Civilization in the Middle East (sons of Shem-Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, Aram, Uz, Hul, Gether, and Meshech). Nile Valley Civilization in Egypt (sons of Ham-Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan) King Menes united the separate kingdoms of Lower and Upper Egypt, and formed one of the world’s first national governments. Aegean Civilization in Europe (sons of Japheth-Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras). Beginning of recorded history. Sumerians developed cuneiform writings. The earliest cuneiforms were found in the Tigris Euphrates Valley in Mesopotamia, or present Iraq in Uruk (Warka). All of this began after the Great Deluge (The Great Flood) Noah and his family were afloat on the ark for one year until it settled on Mount Ararat now present day Turkey (Genesis 10-11). The Nations of Genesis 10:2-31 Javan (The Greeks descendents of Japheth, sons, Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras), Put (North Africans present day Libya and Algeria, descendents of Ham, sons, Cush (his son Raamah, sons were Sheba and Dedan, in which the Ethiopians are descendents and the Queen of Sheba), Mizraim (Egypt), Put (Libya and Algeria), and Canaan), Lud (Asia Minor and Middle East, descendents of Shem, father of the children of Eber, sons were Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad (his son, Salah’s son Eber descendents were five generations to Abraham (Abram) this is the nation of Israel’s lineage began in Ur of the Chaldeans, later Persia present day Iran and Iraq), Lud, and Aram). See the GENESIS CHART.
31st Century B.C.
3000BC-Aegean Civilization (the Bronze Age) was the first great European civilization. It developed along the islands and shores of the Aegean Sea on Crete, in Thessaly (a plain in northern Greece), Phrygians, Lydians, and around Troy in Asia Minor. It ended about 1100BC. The cultures began with the sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal (Rosh-present Russia), and Meshech, and Tiras (Italy?). The sons of Gomer; Ashchenaz (Ashkenazi-Germanic tribes), and Riphath, and Togarmah (present Turkey). The sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish (area around the coast of Spain), Kittim (Cyprus), and Dodanim. By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations. (Genesis 10:5)
3000BC-The sons of Ham (son of Noah); Cush, and Mizraim, Put, and Canaan settle in the regions of North Africa, the Egypt basin, and the land across the Sinai where the Canaanites dwell (the Promised Land that God gave to the Israelites). Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (of whom came the Philistines,) and Caphthorim. Canaan begat Zidon his firstborn, and Heth (the Hittites), the Jebusite also, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite, and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite. The sons of Shem (son of Noah); Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram, and Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Meshech. And Arphaxad begat Shelah, and Shelah begat Eber. And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg; because in his days the earth was divided: and his brother's name was Joktan. (Peleg beget Reu. Reu beget Serug, who beget Nahor who beget Terah, who beget Abram whom God called Abraham).
30th Century B.C.
2950BC—Nimrod the son of Cush became a mighty hunter upon the earth. He and those that followed settled in Shinar (Babylon). Nimrod commands the people to build the Tower of Babel. After God had confounded their language the people move to other parts of the known world.
2930BC-The border of the Canaanites was from Sidon, as you come to Gerar, unto Gaza; as you go unto Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboim, even unto Lasha.
29th Century B.C.
2800-2250BC-Beginning of the Old Kingdom dynasty in ancient Egypt.
28th Century B.C.
2700-2250BC-Egyptian art and architecture developed in the Old Kingdom, called the Age of the Pyramids built by Imhotep. During the 500-year period the Egyptians built the three gigantic pyramids at Giza, north of the capital city of Memphis. King Khufu constructed the largest of these pyramids.
27th Century B.C.
2600 BC -
26th Century B.C.
c.2500BC-The Indus Valley civilization of India began in the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro.
25th Century B.C.
2400 BC -
24th Century B.C.
c.2300BC-The Babylonian ruler, Sargon of Akkad conquered the Sumerians and united their city-states under his rule and controlled Assyria (present Syria). Western Semitic culture and religion developed along the Syrian Ebla.
23rd Century B.C.
22nd Century B.C.
21st Century B.C.
2050-1800BC-Egypt is reunited by nobles as a feudal state. King Amenenhet III resumed trade with other countries and established merchant colonies in Phoenicia and the Third Cataract of the Nile. Egyptian influence expanded south into Nubia and east beyond the Sinai Peninsula into Palestine and Syria.
2007BC-The Egyptian trader Hennu sails to Punt a kingdom in eastern Africa and loads his ships with gold, ivory, and myrrh.
2000BC-The Hittites conquered the area in present-day central Turkey and set up city-states, one of these was Hattusas located just east of present day Turkish capital, Ankara. Mitanni enter into the north kingdom of Syria. The Achaean invade Greece from the north defeating the native Aegeans.
20th Century B.C.
c.1975BC-Abraham born in Ur (the region now in Iraq).
c. 1967BC-Abram is instructed by God to leave Ur of the Chaldeans to the land of Canaan at Shechem where God declares his promise to give this land to Abram’s descendents forever. Abram inherits Canaan. The Canaanites were in the land, the descendents of Ham (Genesis 12-13).
c.1900BC-Abraham moves to Canaan. The Hittites rise to power in central Asia Minor (Turkey).
19th Century B.C.
c. 1895BC-Melchizedek, King of Salem, blesses Abram and receives his tithes (Genesis 14:18-20).
c.1892BC-The Lord makes a covenant with Abram. God gives the land from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates. This contains the land of the Kenites, Kenizzites, Kadmonites, Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaims, Amorites, Canaanites, Girgashites and Jebusites.
c.1889BC-Ishmael is born to Abraham by Hagar the Egyptian.
c.1874BC-Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.
c.1875BC-Isaac is born to Abraham and Sarah the promised son of God’s covenant.
c. 1850BC-God instructs Abraham to take Isaac to the land of Moriah to sacrifice him there. Later, God provided a ram sacrifice in place of Isaac. The vision for God provision of the coming Lamb is given. (Genesis 22:2).
c.1830BC-Abraham takes Keturah his concubine as his wife. She bare Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah. And the sons of Jokshan; Sheba, and Dedan. The sons of Midian; Ephah, and Epher, and Hanoch, and Abidah, and Eldaah (Jethro the father-in-law of Moses is from the Midianites of Ethiopia, present Arabia).
1820-1800BC-Reign of Yahdun-Lim in the Mesopotamia region near present Syria-Iraq border. Royal archives in the ancient city of Mari played a role in the commerce of Mesopotamia, Judea, and Crete. Cuneiform tablets found in a palace complex; the language is Akkadian, a West Semitic language related to Hebrew.
c.1815BC-Jacob and Esau are born to Isaac and Rebekah.
1813BC-Shamshi-Adad chieftain of the Amorites makes himself master of Assyria.
c.1800BC-Abraham dies. Stonehenge in Britain was probably set up about this time.
18th Century B.C.
1780-1760-The reign of Zimri-Lim in the Mesopotamia region.
c. 1750BC-Hammurabi established the Babylonian empire. He developed what is called the Hammurabi Code of law.
c. 1724BC-Joseph born to Jacob and Rachel, daughter of Laban.
c.1712BC-Benjamin is born to Jacob and Rachel. Rachel dies in childbirth.
17th Century B.C.
c.1685BC-Jacob and family settle in Egypt after their reconciliation with Joseph.
c. 1650BC-Hittite empire formed with Hattusas becoming the capital.
c.1614BC-Joseph dies. His sons Ephraim and Manasseh are given the birthright of national greatness.
c.1600-1400BC-The Minoan civilization flourished on the Mediterranean island of Crete.
1600BC-The Achaeans conquer the Cretans. The Aeolian people settle in Thessaly.
16th Century B.C.
1599BC-The nation of Israel dwells in Egypt for 400 years. The Pharaoh who never knew Joseph makes slaves of the 12 Hebrew tribes.
1550BC-The late Bronze Age is a time of major social migrations. Israel dwells in Goshen and are enslaves by Pharaoh to build the treasure cities, Pithom and Raamses. Egyptian control over the Semites in the eastern Nile delta was harsh, with a system of brickmaking quotas imposed on the labor force, often the landless, low-class “Habiru” or “Apiru.” Numerous Canaanite towns were violently destroyed. New populations, including the “Sea People,” made their presence felt in Anatolia, Egypt, Palestine, Transjordan, and else where in the eastern Mediterranean.
c.1500BC-Moses is raised in the house of Pharaoh by the Egyptian princess. The Aryans of central Asia invaded India.
15th Century B.C.
c.1497BC-Moses flees to Midian after killing an Egyptian who beaten a Hebrew slave. (Exodus 2:11-15)
1490-1436BC-The Egyptian Empire reached its height during the reign of King Thutmose III.
1475BC-King Thutmose conquers cities east of the empire including Joppa (present Jaffa incorporated with Tel Aviv) in Palestine.
c.1455BC-Moses comes to Horeb, the mountain of God. God speaks to Moses through the burning bush.
c.1450BC-Moses returns to Egypt to free the Hebrew slaves. Aaron the Levite and brother of Moses becomes his spokesman.
c.1446BC-Reign of Ramses I as Pharaoh of Egypt. Moses and Aaron encounter the Pharaoh. The ten plagues are sent upon Egypt (Waters become blood, frogs, lice, flies, livestock diseased, boils, hail, locusts, darkness, death of the firstborn). The first Passover is established with the Hebrew people. The Exodus: Israelites leave Egypt.
c.1435BC- Moses writes the first five books of the Old Testament, the Torah (Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus, Deuteronomy).
c. 1421-1406BC-Joshua defeats Adonizedek, King of Jerusalem (Joshua 10:1-5, 23-26) Joshua’s long day, siege lasted 7 days (scientific evidence this was a solar eclipse on May 1, 1421 at 12:06PM). The Jebusites retain parts of the city (Joshua 15:63). Joshua and Caleb enter into Canaan. Joshua’s conquest takes Joppa and assigned to the tribe of Dan.
c. 1406BC-Moses dies: After 40 years in the wilderness, the children of Israel enter the Promised Land. (The generations that sinned against God died in the wilderness only their children under the age of twenty years entered into the land along with Joshua and Caleb.)
1400BC-Helladic raid captured Knossos, Crete. Homer describes this civilization in his Iliad and Odyssey. He called these people Achaeans. The Cycladic people inhibited the islands of the Aegean Sea. All that is known of the Cycladic is that the kind of pottery differed from Crete. Settlements were on the islands of Melos, Naxos, and Delos.
14th Century B.C.
1375BC-Correspondence from Canaanite town rulers to the Egyptian court of Pharaoh Akhenaten reveals a weak structure of alliances, with an intermittent Egyptian military presence ans an ominous fear of people called “Habiru” or “Apiru.”
1370BC-The Amarna Revolution shook the Egyptian Empire during the reign of King Amenhotep IV. He changed his name to King Akhenaton brought sweeping artistic, political, religious, and social changes. He moved the capital of Egypt from Thebes and established Akhenaton about 300 miles north of Thebes.
1335BC-The reign of King Tut in Egypt.
1323BC-Death of King Tutankamen at age 19.
c. 1300BC- Joshua (Yehoshua ben Nun), son of Nun serves as Prime Minister of the nation of Israel. Joshua’s friend Caleb (Calev ben Yefuneh) is given land promised to him for his faithfulness and trust in God (their ancient graves are located in the village of Timnat, Kifl, Haress, near Ariel in Samaria). Mutwatallis, the Hittite leader, fought an indecisive battle against Egyptian forces under Ramses II, who barely escape alive at Kadesh on the Orontes River, north of Palestine.
1300-1200BC-Homer composed the Iliad and the Odyssey.
1300-1090BC-Egyptians recover their empire in Asia and their leading position in trade and commerce. They had to fight against the Hittites, and the Philistines, and other invaders from the eastern Mediterranean Sea. King Seti I recaptured Palestine and Syria. His son, Ramses II, fought the Hittites. Ramses’ long reign began strong, but developed inner weaknesses.
13th Century B.C.
1272BC-Joshua, son of Nun dies and is entombed at Kifl near Ariel in Samaria. After the death of Joshua, Judah conquers and burns Canaanite Jerusalem (Judges 1:8). Judah with his brother Simeon slew the Canaanites inhabiting Zephath naming it Hormah. Judah also took Gaza, Askelon, and Ekron along the coasts. Hebron was given to Caleb as Moses said (Judges 1:20).
c. 1225BC-A stele of Pharoah Merneptah claims that a people called Israel were encountered by Egyptian troops somewhere inn northern Canaan.
c. 1225-1020BC-Judges led the Israelites (Othniel -Caleb’s nephew, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah and Barak, Gideon, Abimelech, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Samson, Eli). (Judges 4-21; I Samuel 4:15-18; Ruth 1-4) The Israelites are captured by Chushanrishathaim king of Mesopotamia: and the children of Israel served Chushanrishathaim eight years. The Israelites are delivered by Othniel, son of Kenaz, Caleb’s younger brother.
1200-842BC-Phoenician Empire. Moabites live west of the Jordan River and south of Edom in the land of Moab. Their language is Semite (Hebrew-Phoenician). (The Moabite Stone, made of black basalt, is proof of their existence and can be seen in restored condition at the Louvre in Paris, France.)
1200BC-The Phoenician visited the Berbers in North Africa and show them how to use iron and bronze.
12th Century B.C.
c.1185BC-Eglon, king of Moab along with the armies of Ammon and Amalek possess Israel. Famine plagues the land of Israel. Naomi and Ruth the Moabite return to Bethlehem after the death of Naomi’s husband and sons. Ruth marries Boaz. Their son, Obed is the father of Jesse who is the father of King David. (Ruth 4:17-22)
c. 1184BC-Helladic people destroyed the Aegean civilization at Troy after 10-year siege. Soon after people from the north invaded Greece destroying the Aegean civilization on the mainland and on Crete. Some scholars believe that many Cretans fled to Palestine, and became the Philistines.
c.1164BC-Ehud delivers the Israelites from Eglon the Moab king after Israel served the Moabite king for eighteen years.
c.1150BC-The Aeolians fled from Dorian invaders and move south to Boeotia, later crossing the Aegean Sea to the islands of Lesbos and Chios, then to Aeolis and Mysia in Asia Minor.
c.1140BC-Deborah and Barak deliver Israel from Jabin king of Canaan. Jabin’s general Sisera is slain by Jael, wife of Heber the Kenite. Jabin is destroyed. The land of Israel rested 40 years.
c.1130-1110BC- Nebuchadnezzar I was the greatest king of the Second Isin Dynasty, which followed the Kassite kings of Babylonia. He won fame by freeing Babylonia from Elamite control and by extending Babylonian rule over Elam, a country north of the Persian Gulf. His account of the Elamite battles is a fascinating document of ancient Babylonia.
1130BC-Cádiz, Phoenician city in Hispania (Spain) the oldest in Europe was founded.
1100BC-The birth of Samuel. Given to the service of God by his mother Hannah. Eli is high priest. The Phoenicians began colonizing Hispania (Spain). The Phoenicians also establish colonies in northern Africa along the Mediterranean coast with important cities including Carthage and Hippo (now Tunisia and Algeria).
c.1099BC-The Israelites are delivered into the hands of the Midianites. God calls Gideon for him to take 200 men to deliver Israel from the Midianites.
11th Century B.C.
c.1075BC-Abimelech judges Israel and delivers them into the hands the men of Shechem and killed 70 of his brethen. Because of his wickedness a woman at the high tower of Shechem kills Abimelech with a millstone. And all the evil of the men of Shechem did God render upon their heads: and upon them came the curse of Jotham the son of Jerubbaal. (Judges 9)
c.1070BC-Tola judges Israel for 23 years.
c.1047BC-Jair judges Israel or 22 years. He had thirty sons who had thirty cities called Havothjair unto this day, which are in the land of Gilead. The Israelites are delivered into the hands of the Philistines and the Ammonites.
c.1045BC- Jephthah the Gileadite a mighty man of valour is called to deliver the Israelites from the Ammonites. He made the vow that whatsoever came out of the doors of my house to meet him, when he returned in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the LORD's, and he will offer it up for a burnt offering. Sadly it was his only daughter who ran out to greet him. Jephthah judged Israel six years.
c.1040BC-Ibzan judges Israel.
c.1039BC-Elon judges Israel ten years. After him was Abdon the son of Hillel, a Pirathonite judged eight years.
c.1030BC-Israel is oppressed by the Philistines for 40 years. Samson judges for twenty years and delivers the Israelites from the Philistines. There was no king in Israel everyone did what was right in his own eyes. (Judges 21)
c. 1025-1000BC-Samuel is the last judge and first prophet of Israel (I Samuel 1-25:1), his sons (I Samuel 8:1-3), and Bedan (I Sam. 12:11). Saul reigned as the first king of Israel (I Samuel 9:15-31).
1010BC-Death of King Saul and his sons in battle.
c. 1000BC-Jerusalem is captured by King David (2 Samuel 5:6-9) and the citadel becomes the City of David. Jerusalem becomes the capital of all Israel. Several years later God chooses the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite, adjacent to the City of David for David to offer sacrifice in order for God to stop the plague on Jerusalem (2 Samuel 24:16). This would become the future location of God’s temple. The Phoenicians colonized Malta. Latin tribes settled south of the Tiber River, and Etruscans settled in the northeastern region of the Italian peninsula. Bronze-casting at Zarethan in the Jordan Valley.
10th Century B.C.
c.990BC-King David’s fall.
c.975BC-Solomon succeeds his father David as king of Israel.
c. 966-50BC-Solomon begins construction of the temple during the fourth year of his kingship (1 Kings 6:1).
945BC-Shishak (Sheshonk I) seized the Egyptian throne and founded a dynasty of Libyan rulers in Egypt.
c.931-913BC-King Jeroboam reigns Israel and Rehoboam, son of Solomon rules Judah.
c.930-925BC-After the death of Solomon the land was divided into the kingdoms of Judah and Israel. Shishak (Sheshonk I), King of Egypt, fights against Rehoboam King of Judah. The temple was plundered (1 Kings 14:25, 26).
910-612BC-Assyrian Empire, founder and king Ashurnasirpal.
9th Century B.C.
883-841BC-Omri overthrows his predecessor, Zimri and establishes a powerful dynasty. The Omride Dynasty lasts for 33 years in Tirzah and Samaria. Omri reigns as king of Tirzah and later builds Samaria. (I Kings 16)
874-53BC-In the time of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, Ahab, the son of Omri, becomes the eighth king of Israel. Samaria, Ahab’s capital city, was besieged by Ben-hadad of Damascus (I Kings 20:1). The armies attacking Ahab were defeated. Ahab married the Phoenician (Canaanite) princess Jezebel. Ahab worshiped Baal instead of the one true God, Yahweh. Ahab and Jezebel made an effort to wipe out the worship of God. Both met their end. Ahab was killed in a struggle against Shalmaneser III of Assyria. (Micah 6:16)
872-848BC-Jehoshaphat reign over Judah for 25 years.
858-824BC-The reign of Shalmaneser III gained control of the Mediterranean trade routes. The ten tribes of Israel are carried away by Shalmaneser (apocryphal book 2 Esdras 13:40-43). The Israelites migrated northward from the Euphrates to the Caucasus Mountains and the north shore of the Black Sea. This is where history places the Cimmerians along the Danube and Rhine River in northwestern Europe.
842BC-The Phoenician empire fell to the Assyrians.
836BC-The Assyrians under King Shalmaneser III invades Media (present northern Iran).
835-796BC-The reign of King Joash (7th of Jehu) over Israel for 40 years in the time of Joel the prophet and the locust plague.
830BC-The Mesha stele of the land of Moab boasts of the massacre of entire Israelite towns.
814BC-The city-state of Carthage is founded by the great niece of the Phoenician princess Jezebel.
800BC-King Omri built Samaria and makes it capital of the kingdom of Israel. The king named it after Shemer who owned the land where it was built.
8th Century B.C.
792-740BC-Azariah reigns as king over Judah for 52 years.
776BC-The first Olympic games were held in Greece.
c. 775BC-King Jehoash of Israel attacks King Amaziah of Judah (his reign overlaps with King Azariah). The wall was breached and the Temple plundered (2 Kings 14:13-14).
750-338BC-Hellenic Age (Athens, Corinth, Sparta and Thebes the chief cities of Greece).
750-740BC-The prophet Amos of Tekoa, a Judean shepherd delivered his message at the royal shrine in Bethel, the northern kingdom of Israel to the king and nation with the warning of their ruin because of their selfishness, unfairness to the poor, and insincerity in religion (warning to politicians for today). He demanded social justice and expressed that there is only one God for all nations. (Book of Amos, O.T.)
753BC-The founding of Rome by the Etruscans.
745BC-Israel experiences their first mass deportation after the campaign of Tiglath-Pileser III, a brutal and calculated terror initiated by Ashurnasirpal, the founder of the Assyrian empire.
744-727BC-Tiglath-pileser III conquers Syria and Israel and becomes king of Babylonia.
742BC-Isaiah’s prophecies began in the year King Uzziah died. Isaiah’s work is traced to 701BC.
c.736BC-First Israelite rebellion against Assyria.
734BC-Isaiah warns King Ahaz about alliances with Assyria. He told Ahaz he had nothing to fear of any invasion. Ahaz ignored him and asked for help from Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III. He later came under control of the Assyrians, which invaded Israel, Judah and Syria. (Isaiah 7)
725BC-In the 12th year of Ahaz king of Judah, Hoshea son of Elah reigned in Samaria over Israel for nine years.
722BC-Refugees arrive in Jerusalem about the time of the fall of the northern kingdom in Samaria.
721BC-Merodachbaladan is the first Chaldean king to rule the Babylonians.
c.721-22BC-After a three-year siege northern kingdom of Israel called Samaria falls to the Assyrians under king Shalmaneser. Israel is exiled. The Assyrians begin to deport the Israelites to the area north of the Euphrates River, in the area between the Black and Caspian Seas. According to 2 Kings 17:6, they were sent by King Sargon II to Assyria, to Halah (Calah?), to Gozan on the Habor River, and apparently to eastern frontiers of the empire to the towns of the Medes, most probably somewhere in the vicinity of Ecbatana, modern Hamadan. Inscriptions of Sargon provide clues that “the Arabs live far in the desert who know neither overseers nor officials, and have not brought their tribute to the king, I deported…and settled them in Samaria.” Much myth has developed around the theme of the so-called ten lost tribes of Israel. Close examination of Assyrian records reveals that the deportations approximated only a limited percentage of the population, usually consisting of noble families. Agricultural workers, the majority, were deliberately left to care for the crops (a Babylonian practice, 2 Kings 24:14, 25:12). (2 Kings 17)
720BC-Piankhi overthrows the Libyans and began a period of Sudanese rule in Egypt.
717BC-Sargon II of Assyria captured Carchemish the eastern capital of the Hittites.
715-686BC-Hezekiah reigns over Judah for 29 years.
703BC-King Sennacherib, son of Sargon II of Assyria (present northern Iraq), ends a revolt of the Babylonians and Elamites led by Merodach-baladan.
701BC-Assyrian king, Sennacherib swept into Judah during a revolt in Syria and Palestine, but failed to conquer Jerusalem because a plague had intervened and Sennacherib’s army succumbed to the mysterious lethal contagion. The Assyrians under Rabshakeh defeat the Israelites at Lachish. King Hezekiah went to God in prayer and he answered through the prophet Isaiah that there would be deliverance from the Assyrians. Hezekiah carved an underground aqueduct out of solid rock to bring an ample water supply inside the city walls enabling Jerusalem to survive the siege. (Isaiah 36:1-2; 37:33-35)
7th Century B.C.
689BC-Sennacherib crushes a revolt in Babylonia and destroys the city of Babylon as a warning to other rebels.
681BC-Sennacherib is murdered by his sons. Esarhaddon who claims his innocence becomes king of the Assyrians.
680-669BC-Esarhaddon adds Egypt to the Assyrian kingdom.
670BC-The Assyrians conquered Egypt.
675BC-The city of Abydos in Asia Minor is settled by the Greeks.
668-627BC-Ashurbanipal reigns as the last great king of the Assyrians. Assyria was the leading world power. At the end of his reign the empire fell to the Babylonians and the Medes.
625BC-Nabopolassar founded the Chaldean or New Babylonian Empire.
625-585BC-Cyaxares reigns over the kingdom of the Medes. Cyaxares defeated the Assyrians and built the Media Empire from parts of present day Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.
c.626-571BC-Jeremiah, Ezekiel prophesy while land of Judah is in exile in Babylon.
626-605BC-Nabopolassar reigned as king of Babylonia. He gained control over Chaldean Babylonia through a revolt.
612-539BC-Rise of the Chaldean Empire (Babylon). Nabopolassar joined with the Medes and helped destroy the Assyrian Empire through the fall of Nineveh (recorded in the book of Nahum of the Hebrew Bible). He became supreme in the Valley of the Euphrates. His building of Babylon was a marvel of the ancient world, and boasts one of the world’s seven wonders, the famed Hanging Gardens, as well as a staged temple-tower 295 feet high according to Herodotus, several colossal gold statues weighing many tons. His son Nebuchadnezzar II inherited the empire.
606BC-The destruction of Nineveh causes the Assyrian Empire to fall. This prophecy is fulfilled just 30 years after the prophet Nahum foretold it. (Book of Nahum)
605BC-The Hebrew prophet Daniel in exile at Babylon. The Chaldeans continued the militaristic tradition of Assyria, created an astonishing renaissance of Sumero-Akkadian civilization. Led by Nebuchadnezzar the Babylonian empire saw a building program of canals and monuments that was ambitious in the extreme. Events move swiftly after the death of King Josiah. Pharaoh Neco pressed his advantage by deporting the new ruler and appointed a second son of Josiah, Jehoiakim, as king.
604BC-Babylon under King Nebuchadnezzar II invaded Judah and advanced on Jerusalem. Judah is made a tributary state within the Babylonian empire. Phoenicians circumnavigate Africa.
603BC-The prophet Daniel expounds King Nebuchadnezzar’s dream. The future of the world empires are revealed by God (Daniel 2:27-47; Daniel 4:30-32). These kingdoms are Babylon (head of gold), Medo-Persians (chest of silver), Greece (waist of bronze), Roman Empire (legs of iron), and Revived Roman Empire (feet of iron and clay made up of strong & weak kingdoms). All kingdoms of this earth will pass away; God’s kingdom will be eternal.
602BC-After three years as a Babylonian vassal, King Jehoiakim of Judah rebels bringing a rapid response in the form of small-scale raids from Babylonians, Arameans, Moabites, and Ammonites. Finally, Nebuchadnezzar’s forces controlled all of the coastal territory north of the Wadi of Egypt.
600BC-The Assyrians and the Babylonians established libraries, including the Royal Library at Nineveh. Celtic invaders entered England confronting the Iberians. The Greeks found colonies in north Africa.
6th Century B.C.
597BC-The conquest of Jerusalem, Nebuchadnezzar took Judah’s King Jehoiakim into captivity and placed Zedekiah upon the throne. Jehoiakim only 18 years old is exiled as a captive in Babylon. Ten thousand persons were deported. (Jeremiah 52:28-30)
588BC-Beginning of the siege of Jerusalem (Ezekiel 24:1; 2 Kings 25:1)
587-586BC-17 Tammuz (July 3) Dissatisfied with Zedekiah’s behavior, King Nebuchadnezzar conquers and destroys Jerusalem, burning the temple, kills Zedekiah’s two sons, and takes most of the Jewish population into captivity in Babylon. (2 Kings 25:8-10, Psalm 137).
571BC-The prophet Jeremiah is taken to Egypt by Judahite refugees fleeing from Babylonian-controlled territory. They brought him to Tahpanhes, where he continued his prophecies. (Jeremiah 43, 44, 46)
550BC-Astyages, son of Cyaxares and last Median king, is defeated by Cyrus the Great (Cyrus the Elder) of Persia. Cyrus incorporates Median lands into the Persian Empire and made Media a Persian province. Miletus, along the Meander River, the center for Greek literary and scientific-philosophical figures is captured by the Persians.
549BC-The Medes yield to the Persian conqueror Cyrus initiated a major policy shift, creating an enlightened and humane government that allowed Aramaic-speaking people, including Jews, to hold official posts.
548BC-The prophet Daniel receives prophecy of the outcome of the Persian and Greek empires.
546BC-Cyrus the Great defeats Croesus and becomes master of Lydia. The Persians conquest of Lydia brought the Greeks into conflict with Persia, a series of events chronicled in great detail by Herodotus.
539BC-In the fall, Cyrus the Great of Persia conquers Babylon defeating King Nabonidus and his son Belshazzar (Daniel 5). Nabonidus absented himself at Tema in Arabia while Belshazzar acted as regent in the Babylonian capital. Cyrus subsequently allows the Jewish exiles to return to Jerusalem to rebuild the temple (2 Chronicles 36:22-23).
539-330BC-Persian Empire. Righteous kings Asa, Jehoshaphat, Joash, Hezekiah, and Josiah rule Israel (2 Chronicles 14-35, Zephaniah).
538BC-Zerubbabel led the first group of about 42,000 Jews from exile in Babylon back to Jerusalem. They began rebuilding the temple (Ezra 1-6).
536BC-Opposition is met in Jerusalem over building the temple during Cyrus’s reign.
530BC-Work on the temple in Jerusalem ceased.
529BC-Cyrus the Great is slain in an expedition against the Scythians, a tribe of nomadic horsemen (The Scyths are the ancestors of the Scots, Welsh, and Celt people).
525BC-The Persians conquered Egypt.
520BC-486BC-Darius I rules Persia. A record of his early achievements is carved in cuneiform writing on a high cliff known as Behistun Rock, in western Persia. He put down widespread revolts and, later, added northwestern India and parts of central Asia and southeastern Europe to his empire. Darius is credited with organizing the empire into efficient administrative units called satrapies. He reorganized the tax system and encouraged trade with other countries. His army invaded Greece after conflicts with Greeks in Asia Minor and a campaign against the Scythians in Europe. After his death his son Xerxes is successor to the throne. In September the building of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem resumes. (Ezra 5:2; Haggai 1:14)
515-516BC-The Second Temple at Jerusalem was complete under the prompting of the prophet Haggai and Zechariah. It is built where Solomon’s Temple stood. The Temple is dedicated to God in the month of Adar (March). (Ezra 6:15)
509BC-The Romans (Latins) rebelled and drove out the Etruscan rulers and established a republic.
c.500BC-The Boii lived in the region now called Bohemia (Czechoslovakia).
5th Century B.C.
490BC-The Athenians defeat the Persians at the Battle of Marathon. Militiades of Athens routed the Persians under Datis and Artaphernes, and saved Greece from invasion.
490-480BC-The rise of the Persian Empire and the Persian invasions of Greece accounted in the nine books of Herodotus included the rise of the Persian Empire, the Persia invasions of Greece, the heroic battle of the Greeks against the invaders, and the final Greek victory.
485BC-Xerxes I, the son of Darius I and grandson of Cyrus the Great, takes the throne of Persia.
483BC-End of second reckoning of 70 years since the dedication of the Jewish Temple. No knowledge of events until the Feast of Ahasuerus (Xerxes).
481BC-Xerxes led an army across the Dardanelles (Hellespont) near Abydos and invaded Europe.
480BC-King Leonidas I of Sparta lead the Battle of Thermopylae against the Persians under Xerxes I. Leonidas and the Spartans died in the battle. In September, the Athenians commanded by the statesman-general Themistocles defeated the Persian fleet under Xerxes at the Battle of Salamis. Even though outnumbered by the Xerxes’ I Persian army the Greeks prevailed to establish their empire contributing to arts, culture, and science that paved the way to Christianity. The Carthaginians conquered Spain; they used it as a steppingstone to invade Italy.
479BC-The Greeks defeat the Persians at the Battle of Plataea. Esther (Haddassah in Hebrew) becomes Queen of Persia to King Artaxerxes.
476BC-Haman the right hand man of King Artaxerxes plots to destroy the Jewish people. Esther’s cousin Mordecai discovers his plan. Esther then risks her life to tell her husband King Artaxerxes of the plot. The Jewish people are saved from annihilation. The time of Purim is declared annually on the fifteenth day of Adar (March) to commemorate the courage of Esther and saving her people. (Book of Esther)
461-431BC-During the Golden Age of Athens, the Greeks produced their greatest arts.
458-457BC-The 7th year of Persian King Artaxerxes (Xerxes). He issues a decree allowing the rebuilding of Jerusalem’s wall. Ezra returns to Jerusalem from Babylon with the Book of the Law. The people assemble. The committee begins investigation in December and ends in March. (Ezra 7:1, 7-8, 11-26; 10:9, 16, 17). (490 years to the ministry and death of Christ began in 457BC, prophecy proclaimed in Daniel 9:25)
c.450BC-The Parthenon and other Greek temples are built at Acropolis.
445BC-Mar. 14, in the 20th year, the Edict of Artaxerxes I is given to Nehemiah to rebuild the wall of Jerusalem. Nehemiah goes to Jerusalem in the fall about August the wall is completed in October. There is a public assembly. The Feast of Tabernacles takes place and then a fast. (Nehemiah 1:1-2; 6:15; 7:73-8:1, 14; 9:1)
433-432BC-April, in the 32nd year of Artaxerxes Nehemiah is recalled and returns. (Nehemiah 5:14; 13:6)
431-404BC-Sparta defeated Athens in the Peloponnesian War.
430BC-Nehemiah and third group of Jews return to Jerusalem. Malachi writes the last book of the Old Testament. Malachi makes the prophecy of the coming Messiah and the forerunner like Elijah who will prepare the way for Him. God is “silent” for 400 years until the coming of the messenger of the Lord and the Messiah’s First Coming.
424BC-Xerxes II comes to the throne of Persia after the murder of his father, Artaxerxes I. Xerxes reign lasts only 45 days. His half-brother Sogdianus murders him and seizes the throne. Sogdianus is murdered soon afterward. Thucydides commands the Athenian fleet during the Peloponnesian War. He fails to relieve the siege at Amphipolis and is exiled for 20 years in this time he visits all parts of the Greek world, follows the course of the war, and writes his History of the Peloponnesian War.
424-404BC- Darius II ruled the Persian Empire. Court intrigues and declining strength in the empire marked his reign.
414-13BC-The Athenians under Nicias laid siege to the city of Syracuse, an ally of Sparta in the Peloponnesian War. They were repulsed by troops under Hermocrates and Gylippus. The loss led to the fall of Athens as a great power.
405BC-The Athenians under general Alcibiades meet a crushing defeat at Aegospotami. Lysander’s Spartan sailors in 200 vessels destroyed a superior Athenian fleet of about 180 ships under Conon, along the coast of western Asia. Alcibiabes treachery caused the defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War.
404-401BC-Greek army led by Persian prince, Cyrus the Younger, son of King Darius II, attempts to seize the throne from his brother Artaxerxes. Cyrus is killed in the Battle of Cunaxa, and the Greek commanders are killed soon afterward. Xenophon described this 1,500-mile march in Anabasis, a history of the expedition.
400-350BC-Celts from France (Gaul) and Spain invaded Ireland (Erie).
400BC-In Greece, Hippocrates taught that diseases had natural causes and that the body had the power to repair itself. Medical school graduates today still repeat the Oath of Hippocrates.
4th Century B.C.
391BC-Death of Nehemiah.
390BC-The Gauls (Gallic tribes) cross the Alps raided Italy and destroyed Rome. The Romans drove them back, but they held the northern part of Italy.
371BC-Thebes defeated Sparta in the Battle of Leuctra.
360BC-The tyrant Demetrius Phalereus of Athens made known the collection of Aesop’s Fables 200 years after Aesop’s death.
362BC-Thebes collapsed after the Battle of Mantinea. Alexander the Great of Greece invades northwestern India.
358-37-Phillip II, father of Alexander the Great, becomes ruler in Macedonia the Greek region north of Achaia (from the federation of cities called the Achaean League, including the Peloponnesian peninsula and central Greece).
350BC-Book of Enoch (I Enoch) composed about this time. One of the apocalyptic books Enoch’s revelations transmitted through his son, Methuselah located in the Qumran Cave 4. Antioch of Pisidia was founded. Jaddua is high priest.
338BC-Philip II of Macedonia defeated the Greeks and made Greece part of the Macedonian Empire.
336BC-Alexander the Great becomes king of Macedonia.
334-328BC-Alexander the Great invades Persia with an army of Macedonians and Greeks at the Battle of the Granicus River.
333BC- Darius III is defeated at Issus.
332BC-Alexander the Great adds Jerusalem to his Greek empire and completely overthrows Persia under Darius III at Gaugamela near Arbela (Irbil in Iraq) the following year and opens his path of conquest to northern India. He also adds Egypt to his empire. Darius III fled to his eastern provinces, and was murdered by his own men.
330BC-Alexander the Great invades Afghanistan region and is added to his empire.
326BC-Alexander the Great accepts the surrender of Porus and other Indian princes after he conquers India.
323-146BC-Hellenistic Age begins (Greek culture).
323BC-June 13, Alexander the Great dies at Babylon. His body is placed in a gold coffin and taken to Memphis in Egypt. Later it is taken to Alexandria and placed in a beautiful tomb. Palestine is controlled from Egypt by the Ptolemiac dynasty until 198BC.
322BC-Aristotle, former teacher of Alexander the Great, left Athens and went to Chalcis made one of the first attempts to bring all exiting knowledge together in a series of books.
312BC-Ptolemy I, one of Alexander’s former generals, makes Palestine part of his Egyptian realm after the fracturing of Alexander the Great’s empire.
311BC-Seleucus conquers Babylon; the Seleucid dynasty begins.
307BC-Alexander’s former generals, Antigonus and his son Demetrius took title as king over Alexander’s empire, whereas Ptolemy and Seleucus, Cassander, and Lysimachus did the same.
305BC-Lysimachus seizes Thrace and Asia Minor and proclaims himself king.
306BC-Ptolemy I becomes King of Egypt and North Africa.
301BC-Cassander seizes Greece and Macedonia and with the aid of Lysimachus and Seleucus, triumphed over Antigonus who was slain at the Battle of Ipsus.
c.300BC-Ptolemy Soter built a large structure in Alexandria, Egypt, to house a library and art collection. The Hindus invented our present numeral system.
3rd Century B.C.
284-85BC-The Septuagint written at Alexandria, Egypt by Jewish scholars.
285-246BC-During the reign of Ptolemy II the famous lighthouse Pharos of Alexandria is built on the island of Pharos standing 400 feet high.
281BC-Lysimachus is defeated and slain at the Battle of Corpedium by Seleucus.
280BC-The Book of Daniel included in the Septuagint. The Achaean League is formed that opposed Macedonian rule and growing power of Rome.
277-168BC-Three major Hellenistic kingdoms stabilized in Egypt, Syria and Macedonia under the Antigonids.
278BC-The Gauls (Gallic tribes) crossed into Asia from Europe and invade Thrace, Macedonia and overran parts of Asia Minor. They became known as the Galatians.
276BC-Cassander’s dynasty is overthrown by Antigonus II.
264-241BC-The Romans defeated the Carthaginians in the First Punic War.
260BC-Eumenes I, the Seleucid governor of Pergamum (Asia Minor) gained independence from the Seleucids.
250BC-The law of the Septuagint is translated from the Torah by Greek speaking Jewish scholars.
247BC-Hamilcar Barca, great general of Carthage, northern Africa and father of Hannibal took command of the Carthaginian forces in western Sicily at the beginning of the First Punic War.
246BC-The Afghanistan province of Bactria breaks away and becomes independent.
241-197BC-Attalus I, King of Pergamum brought back works of art for his city from all parts of Asia Minor.
239BC-Attalus, king of the Greek city of Pergamum, defeated the Gauls and forced them into eastern Phrygia, later named Galatia.
237BC-Hamilcar governed Carthage’s holdings in Spain.
226BC-The Persians under the rule of the Sassanid dynasty, overthrew the Parthians.
221-207BC-The Ch’in dynasty established China’s first strong central government and completed the Great Wall that protected China from invaders.
220BC-Trouble develops between Carthage and Rome over Hannibal’s expansion.
219BC-Hannibal, the great Carthaginian general and statesman, armies attacked Saguntum, a Spanish ally of Rome.
218BC-The Second Punic War.
217BC-Hannibal and his armies march across the Pyrenees Mountains on war elephants and invade central Italy. He destroyed the Romans in an ambush on the shores of Lake Trasimeno.
216BC-Hannibal’s armies are outnumbered by the Romans at Cannae, in southern Italy. Hannibal’s armies encircle the Romans and crushed them killing 50,000 enemy troops in one day. The Romans suffered one of the worst defeats in Rome’s military history.
207BC-Roman armies of Marcus Salinator and Claudius Nero destroyed the troops of Carthage under Hasdrubal in Italy. Metaurus marked a turning point in the Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome.
205BC-Roman General Scipio the Elder drove the Carthaginians out of Spain.
204BC-Roman armies under Scipio invade Africa.
202BC-Hannibal’s armies are defeated by Scipio at Zama, in northern Africa, and opened the way for Roman domination of the Mediterranean.
201BC-Punic War ends with the victory of Rome in spite of Hannibal’s effort. The Romans seized Spain and drove the Carthaginians out and made the first complete conquest of the Iberian Peninsula.
200BC-The people of Abydos (east of Hellespont now called Dardanelles) are defeated by Philip V of Macedon.
2nd Century B.C.
198BC-Antiochus II, descendant of another of Alexander’s generals, takes Palestine from Egypt and makes it part of his Seleucid kingdom of Syria.
197BC-The Romans conquered Macedonia and Greece for the first time.
195BC-Romans demand surrender of Carthage from Hannibal. Hannibal flees eastward and finds protection with King Antiochus III of Syria, who was about to go to war with Rome.
192BC-Rome invaded Asia and defeated Antiochus III of Syria, an ally of Philip V of Macedonia, in the Battle of Magnesia.
189BC-Antiochus III makes little use of Hannibal’s genius and lost the war with Rome. Hannibal flees to Bithynia (Turkey). When the Romans demand his surrender, Hannibal committed suicide. The Romans defeat the Galatians and allow them to keep their tribal government.
176-164BC-Daniel’s prophecy encouraged persecuted Jews in their desperate struggle against the oppression of Antiochus IV, King of Syria.
168BC-Antigonus II dynasties of Greece and Macedon are overtaken by the Roman Empire.
167BC-Antiochus IV (Epiphanes), issues decree prohibiting observance of God’s Law. The abomination of desolation is set up shortly. This symbolizes the actions of the coming Antichrist (The Beast) in the future. Mattathias and his sons rebel against Antiochus; Maccabees revolt begins. (Daniel 12; 2 Maccabees 3:7-40; 5:11-14 from the apocryphal books)
166-160BC-Judas Maccabees assumes leadership of the temple in Jerusalem.
164-65BC-Jewish forces under Judas Maccabees defeat the Syrians and reconsecrate the Temple. Rulership extends eventually over Jerusalem, Samaria, Judah and Galilee.
165BC-Rededication of the Jewish Temple by Judas Maccabaeus. Judas Maccabaeus proclaims the festival of Hanukkah. The book of Daniel believed to be written about this time.
147-146BC-Greece becomes a Roman province, and the Hellenistic Age ends.
146BC-The Roman conquest puts an end to the Achaean League. Roman forces destroyed Carthage. The Romans destroy Corinth and conquered Greece.
142-134BC-The Tower of Jerusalem is cleansed. Simon is high priest; establishes the Hasmonean dynasty. The Jews are greatly oppressed. The Ptolemies are tolerant of the Jews and their religious practices but the Seleucid rulers are determined to force Hellenism on them. Copies of the scriptures are ordered destroyed and laws are enforced with extreme cruelty but the Maccabees revolt ended this.
134-104BC-John Hyrcanus enlarges the independent Jewish state.
133BC-King Attalus III dies and left in his will his kingdom of Pergamum and Asia Minor to the Romans.
120BC-Hyrcanus attacks and destroys Samaria. (It is later rebuilt by Herod the Great, who called it Sebaste)
109BC-Pharisees and Sadducees first mentioned in Jewish records.
103BC-Aristobulus’s rule in Jerusalem.
102-76BC-Alexander Jannaeus’s rule in Palestine.
1st Century B.C.
94-88BC-Jewish rebellion and Hasidic movement during the reign of Jewish king Jannaeus. Pharisees (merchants) contempt for the ruling class and their overwhelming popularity with the people prompted the rebellion. All Jewish sects were zealous to their obedience to the Mosaic Law. The Pharisees stood out because they adhered strictly to the Oral Law-ancient dogma memorized and repeated by Jewish teachers. The Oral Law is now known as the Mishnah.
90BC-Mithridates, king of Pontus (Turkey) drove the Romans from Asia Minor. He ordered every Roman citizen in Asia Minor killed-an estimated 80,000 were put to death.
84BC-Roman attacks Mithridates’ allies in Greece. Mithridate sends two armies, but Roman general Sulla defeats them forcing Mithridates to make peace.
75BC-Rome takes over Bithynia, a region adjoining Pontus. The Roman general Pompey drove Mithridates out of Asia Minor. Mithridates planned to continue the war from the Crimea in what is now southern Russia. His son, Pharnaces, rebels against him, and Mithridates kills himself by taking poison.
75-67BC-Salmone Alexandra rules Jerusalem in Palestine (Israel) with Hyrcanus II as high priest.
66-63BC-Battle between Aristobulus II and Hyrcanus II.
65BC-Seleucid Syria conquered by Roman Empire.
64BC-Seleucid dynasty ended when Roman general Pompey made Syria a province of the Roman Empire.
63BC-Julius Caesar becomes dictator of Rome. Pompey conquers Jerusalem and the provinces of Palestine making it a part of the Roman Empire.
63-40BC-Hyrcanus II rules Palestine but is subject to Rome.
60BC-The first triumvirate in Rome was formed by Julius Caesar, Pompey the Great, and Marcus Licinius Crassus. Roman armies conquered Cambria (present Wales).
58BC-Herod in Palestine. Caesar in Gaul. Caesar conquer the Helvetian tribes (present Switzerland).
57BC-Julius Caesar invades the region of what is now the Netherlands.
55BC-Julius Caesar invades the south coast of Britain. He met resistance from warring Celtic tribes.
52BC-The great Gallic leader, Vercingetorix surrendered to Roman general Julius Caesar at Alesia in central Gaul.
50BC-The Septuagint is completed with all the books of the Old Testament. The Vaticanus manuscript is kept in the Vatican Library in Rome, and the Alexandrinus and Sinaiticus in London.
49BC-Julius Caesar made war on the Roman Senate.
47BC-Antipater procurator of Palestine. Herod is governor of Galilee. Julius Caesar is dictator of Rome.
44BC-Cleopatra names her 4-year-old son by Julius Caesar co-ruler of Egypt with the name Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Brutus and a group of conspirators assassinated Caesar.
43BC-After the assassination of Caesar a second triumvirate is formed by Gaius Octavianus (Augustus), Marcus Lepidus, and Mark Antony.
42BC-Mark Antony and Octavian Augustus defeat Brutus and Cassius at the Second Battle of Philippi, after which the traitors committed suicide.
40BC-Parthians conquer Jerusalem. The Romans install a new king over the Jews of Palestine, Herod the Great.
37BC-Jerusalem besieged for six months. Herod the Great assumes kingship in Jerusalem. He maintains his rule of Judea, Galilee, Iturea, and Traconitis by being friendly with the Roman emperors. (The family Herod was from Edom (Greek, Idumaea).
32BC-Herod the Great is defeated in the siege of Jerusalem and becomes subject of Rome.
31BC-There is an earthquake in Judea. Octavian’s (later Emperor Augustus) general Agrippa led a 400 ship fleet defeated the combined fleets of Antony and Cleopatra queen of Egypt at the Battle of Actium off the western coast of Greece. The victory ended a split in Roman power, and stopped Egyptian influence in Roman affairs.
30BC-Macedonian general Ptolemy’s Egyptian kingdom under his descendents comes to an end with the death of Cleopatra following her defeat by the Romans. Roman armies conquered Egypt. Aug. 3, Octavian (Augustus) takes Alexandria. Caesar Augustus awards the city of Samaria to Herod the Great, who rebuilds and renames it Sebaste in honor of Augustus.
27BC-Augustus (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus) becomes the first Roman emperor and restores the republican government.
25BC-Antioch of Pisidia becomes a colony of the Roman Empire that developed into an important military and economic link. Emperor Augustus made Galatia a Roman province. An inscription of Augustus deeds as found in the capital city of Galatia, Ancyra (present Ankara, Turkey).
19BC-The Roman poet Virgil, writer of the Aeneid, Eclogues and the Georgics dies from fever in Brundisium, leaving the Aeneid unfinished. Herod the Great begins rebuilding the Temple at Jerusalem.
16BC-King Herod the Great visits Agrippa. The local government was entrusted part of the time to princes and the rest of the time to procurators who were appointed by the emperors. Herod the Great rules all of Palestine.
8BC-Emperor Augustus of Rome orders a census of the entire known world. Cyrenius was governor of Syria.
5BC- Birth of Jesus Christ. (His birth points to autumn being in the northern hemisphere about end of September or early October around autumn after the time of Abijah as recorded in Luke 1:5, 24-36 of the conception and birth of John the Baptist corresponding to June 13-19 in that year recorded in Luke 1:8-13, 23-24 after 9 months John was born in March then 6 months later Jesus was born about September). Emperor Augustus ordered a census of the entire known world enrolled (early documents found it took place in 8BC). Shortly after Joseph and Mary went to Bethlehem. The appearance of the Star of Bethlehem is observed in the eastern sky by shepherds and the Wise Men moving westward toward Jerusalem and towards Rome, Italy. Herod the Great fearing the prophecy of the coming king of Israel sends out a decree to massacre the male children of Bethlehem. Mary and Joseph flee to Egypt with the infant Jesus.
4BC-Herod the Great’s death leads to his son Herod Antipas rule as governor of Galilee and Peraea until 39AD. Archelaus succeeds Herod as governor over Judea, Idumea, and Samaria. Herod Philip II was tetrarch of Iturea and Traconitis until 34AD.
3-2BC-After the death of Herod, Joseph and Mary with the infant Jesus returns from their journey in Egypt avoided Judea and settled in Nazareth a small village in northern Israel. (Matthew 2:15; Hosea 11:1)
1st Century A.D.
1AD-The Christian Era begins after the birth of Christ. (There is no zero (0) year. When calculating the year of an event subtract 1 year)
7-8AD- Jesus is 12 years of age and accompanies his foster father, Joseph and his mother Mary to Jerusalem during the feast of the Passover. For three days, Jesus meets with the doctors in the Temple and they marvel at his understanding and answers. Jesus and his parents return to Nazareth to live out his early silent years as a carpenter, where Jesus grew in wisdom and stature in favor of God and man, until his ministry. (Luke 2:41-52)
9AD-Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, Arminius directed an army of Germans in destroying a Roman force under Publius Varus, and halted Roman plans to conquer Germany.
14AD-Emperor Augustus dies and Tiberius (Tiberius Claudius Nero) becomes emperor of the Roman Empire. (Luke 3:1)
18AD-Caiaphas assumes rulership of the Sanhedrin until 36AD. Caiaphas works alongside Roman governor Pilate, they forge an uneasy peace in Judea. Caiaphas used political expediency as a key to control his position with the Roman government and the Jewish people.
20AD-Herod Antipas builds the major city of Tiberias in the southwestern shore of Galilee. Antipas named the city after Roman Emperor Tiberius.
26AD-Pontius Pilate becomes Roman governor of Judea, Samaria, and part of Idumea. John the Baptist is the messenger who prepares the way of the Lord preaches and baptizes along the Jordan River and fulfills the prophecy from Malachi. (Malachi 3:1)
29AD-Jesus Christ of Nazareth baptized and begins his ministry at age 30 teaching throughout the Galilee region and Jerusalem with His headquarters in Capernaum. His ministry lasts for 3 ½ years. John the Baptist is captured by King Herod Antipas’ men and is imprisoned, later John is beheaded. (Deut. 18:18; Compare Luke 3; John 1:41; 4:25)
33AD-April 3, Jesus enters Jerusalem the day before the Passover week on Palm Sunday, the 10th day of Nissan. On the night of the Passover supper on the 14th day of Nissan, Jesus tells of his betrayal and death. Later that night Jesus and his disciples go to Gethsemane to pray. Jesus is arrested and put on trial before Pontius Pilate. On the feast of Passover in the 15th day of Nisan (April 3th) was the crucifixion of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ (I Corinthians 5:7). Jesus hangs on the cross for 6 hours. There are 6 miracles during this time. Jesus’ resurrection from the tomb of Joseph of Arimathaea comes to past in three days after his crucifixion on the 17th day of Nisan, the day of First Fruits. After 40 days He appears to give testimony, five hundred people give testimonies of what they had witnessed (Luke 19:38, 41-44). Jesus taught of the Kingdom of God and commands His disciples to spread the Gospel (The Great Commission) to the ends of the earth (Acts 1:8) then Jesus ascends into Heaven. The Church Age began on the 50th day from Passover the day of Pentecost (6th day of Sivan, May-June) the promised Holy Spirit comes to give us the church.
34AD-First Christian martyr Stephen stoned to death outside Jerusalem wall. The conversion of Saul of Tarsus (Apostle Paul) on his way on the road to Damascus (Syria). Jesus of Nazareth confronts him. (Acts 2:41)
36AD-Pilate is called back to Rome with charges of cruelty to the Jewish people. According to a story he was sent as an exile to Gaul and committed suicide there. Another story says his body was plunged into a lake near Lucerne, Switzerland. According to belief, he was made a saint by the Abyssinian church, when he converted to Christianity and died a martyr.
37AD-Emperor Tiberius dies and Caligula becomes emperor of Rome. Caligula gives Herod Agrippa the northeast territories that Herod Philip and Lysanias ruled. Christianity is by this time arrived in Britain.
39AD-Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great, is banished from Galilee to Gaul and Caligula gives Galilee and Peraea to Herod Agrippa. Herod Antipas’ half brother, Herod Philip II, was tetrarch of Ituraea in northeast Palestine.
41AD-Caligula adds Judea and Samaria to Herod Agrippa to rule. Agrippa is the king who kills the Apostle James and imprisoned Peter. (Acts 12:20-23) Claudius the fourth Roman Emperor rules until 54AD (b.10BC, in Lugdunum, Gaul present day Lyon, France). Claudius third wife was his niece Agrippina who wanted her son Nero by a previous marriage to displace Claudius’s son, Britannicus.
42AD-According to history, Apostle Peter is the first bishop of the Church of Rome. Other authorities say scriptures do not say that Peter was ever in Rome. He was in Jerusalem and Antioch, and he wrote a letter from Babylon. (I Peter 5:13, Matt. 16:18)
43AD-Roman Emperor Claudius conquered Britain.
44AD-James Boanerges the elder one of the 12 apostles of Jesus is beheaded by Herod at Jerusalem. Peter is put into prison. Agrippa dies struck down by an angel (Acts 12:1-24). Emperor Claudius refused to make Herod Agrippa II king of Palestine because he was only 17 years of age. Thrace (present Bulgaria near border of Turkey) annexed by Rome. Peter goes to Babylon until 49AD. A Claudius Edict expelled Christian leaders from Rome.
c.45AD-Romans extend into Britain’s northern territory of Caledonia (present Scotland). The conquest took 30,000 Celtic lives (Picts & Scots), but the Roman victory was short-lived. Surviving clansmen began a fierce guerrilla campaign against their occupiers.
46-48AD-Famine occurred in Judea during the rule of Claudius. Paul and Barnabas brought food to the Christians in Jerusalem (Acts 11:27-30). Paul’s first missionary journey began after three years of preparation by the Holy Spirit with Barnabas and Mark, from Antioch to Cyprus and Asia Minor (Acts 13-14). Three separate trips will span over 20 years.
49-52AD-Paul’s second missionary journey with Silas from Jerusalem to Antioch and Asia Minor to Greece back to Jerusalem (Acts 15:39-18:22). Apostle Thomas Didymus arrived in India no later than 49AD.
50AD-Herod Agrippa’s II uncle dies and he is made king of Chalcis, an area in Lebanon. He is mentioned in scripture, when he visited Festus, the Roman governor of Judea, he was asked to listen to St. Paul’s defense and appeal to the emperor. (Acts 25-26)
51AD-An inscription found at Delphi dates the governorship of Gallio. (Acts 18:12)
52AD-Apostle Paul wrote the ninth book the epistle to the Galatians of Galatia from the New Testament (these were the Gallic tribes from Gaul who spoke the Celtic language that includes modern Irish and Welsh). Paul denied the teaching that a person must be a Jew before he can be a Christian. He denied the accusation of being a false Apostle. He said he had been appointed through Christ and God the Father.
53-57AD-Paul’s third missionary journey began at Antioch, Syria throughout Asia Minor (Turkey) and Europe, Macedonia, Philippi, Thessalonica, Corinth, Athens (Acts 18:23-21:16).
54-68AD-It’s thought that Agrippina poisoned Claudius on 13 October 68AD. Nero becomes emperor of Rome.
58AD-Paul and Silas are thrown in prison at Caesarea for two years.
59-62AD-Paul’s fourth missionary journey began from Jerusalem went onto Crete. Shipwrecked on Malta about 60AD and converted the inhabitants to Christianity. Paul went onto Sicily then to Rome (Acts 27-28:16).
60AD-In his Annals, Tacitus, the Roman historian describes the devastating earthquake that destroys the city of Laodicea. (Colossians 4:13) The Apostle Simon Zelotes the Canaanite arrived in Britain during the first year of the Boadicean war. The whole island is convulsed in fervent anger against the Romans.
61AD-Simon Zelotes evangelizes the isle of Britain. He is then arrested by order of Catus Decianus and put on trial. He is condemned to death and crucified by the Romans at Caistor, Lincolnshire, and buried there ca. May 10th.
62AD-Apostle Paul wrote the twelfth book the epistle to the Colossians of Colossae (central Turkey) from the New Testament. Paul warned against teachings that tried to reduce the importance of Christ (the message, make Christ first in every area of life). St. James the Just, the half brother of Jesus, is killed by a mob in Jerusalem.
64AD-The massive refurbishing of the Second Temple began by King Herod is completed. Apostle Paul makes a missionary journey to Spain. The Great Fire of Rome destroyed most of the city.
64-68AD-Persecution of Christians under Roman Emperor Nero. Paul writes to Timothy from Rome and instructs him to warn the church of false teachers and false doctrine and living. (II Timothy)
65AD-Luke, the physician writes the Acts of the Apostles. By this time the apostles already left Jerusalem on their world missions.
66AD-The first Jewish Revolt against Rome begins. Herod Agrippa II tried to persuade the Jews not to revolt against Rome but he failed. During the war to follow in 70AD he fought against the Jews on the side of the Romans. Apostle Paul is put in prison again in Rome.
67AD-In July the Roman forces invade Galilee during the first Jewish Revolt siege.
c. 67-68AD-Apostles Peter and Paul are executed in Rome during the reign of Nero. Peter is crucified upside down on Vatican Hill. Because of his Roman citizenship, Paul is beheaded at Aquae Salviae in the Ostian Road, near Rome. St. Linus becomes bishop of the Church of Rome following St. Peter’s execution. There is no biblical evidence that Peter passed on the apostolic authority to a successor. The testimony of the Scripture was when the Apostles died, their apostolic authority ceased. All authority from then on was in the completed canon of the Scriptures; nothing was to be added and nothing taken away. (Revelation 22:18-19)
68AD-Flavius Josephus wrote the Antiquities, an account of Jewish history. (Published under, The Works of Josephus by William Whiston) Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide.
69AD-Vespasian becomes emperor of Rome. The Apostle Andrew is crucified on an X-shaped cross in Greece for testifying of his faith in Christ and recanting from an order to forsake his faith by a Greek governor.
70AD-During the first Jewish revolt against the Romans the Second Temple is destroyed by the Roman forces under Titus. The western “Wailing” wall remains. Flavius Josephus gives account of the siege of Jerusalem in his Antiquities. The Romans captured many Jewish rebels and in the last months of the rebellion, as many as 500 people a day were crucified. (40 years after the crucifixion of Christ as he had prophesied. Matthew 24:1-2). A total of 1.5 million Jews died during the 6-month siege of the city. A recent archeological excavation found proof of the site where the revolt took place. Coins and other finds were unearthed (2007).
71AD-The Romans plow Jerusalem with salt so that nothing would grow in the land again.
72AD-The Jews of Cochin migrate to India, driven from Jerusalem by Roman legions.
73AD-The fall of the Jewish resistance at Masada saw the suicide of hundreds of Jews, after a long siege conducted by Roman general Silva.
76AD-St. Anacletus (Cletus), a disciple of St. Peter becomes third bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
78-87AD-Gnaeus Julius Agricola governed Britain. According to Tacitus the historian and Agricola’s son-in-law, Agricola civilized the British and was unjustly retired by the emperor of Rome.
78AD-The Kushan Empire ruled Afghanistan and northwestern India until 200.
79AD-Mount Vesuvius erupted, destroyed Pompeii and two other nearby cities killing the inhabitants and burying them under tons of hot ash and debris. The Roman writer, lawyer and admiral, Pliny the Elder (Gaius Plinius Secundus) died there trying to help the refugees. He wrote the 37-volume Natural History.
80AD-Apostle Andrew preached to the Scythians (ancestors of the Scots and Celts) and Sogdians, and to the Sacæ, in a city called Sebastopolis where the Ethiopians inhabit. Andrew was buried in Patræ a city of Achaia (Greece) after being crucified by Ægeas, governor of the Edessenes.
81AD-Pliny the Younger (Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus), the nephew of Pliny the Elder known for his Letters addressed to the historian Tacitus, gives detailed account of the eruption of Vesuvius and his uncle (Pliny the Elder). Pliny served as governor of Bithynia, and wrote letters to the Emperor Trajan describing the Christians and asking what to do with them. The letters are the earliest accounts of Christians written by a pagan. Tacitus writes in his accounts about Christus (Jesus Christ of Nazareth) who was tried as a criminal under the reign of Tiberius at the time of his Judean procurator Pontius Pilate. He writes that the beginnings of Christianity started in Judea and there was evidence of Christians from the region with a strong following of believers.
82AD-The Roman armies under General Gnaeus Agricola invades Caledonia (present Scotland) and conquered the Picts (fierce painted people).
85-90AD-St. Luke writes the Acts of the Apostles the only record of the Christian church in the years after the death and resurrection of Christ.
88AD-St. Clement I become fourth pope of the Roman Catholic Church, the first of early writers called “Apostolic Fathers.” His epistle to the Corinthians is a source to early church history and organization of the early church. This is not to be confused with the epistles to the Corinthians (I Corinthians and II Corinthians) written by the Apostle Paul written over 40 years earlier.
93AD-Flavius Josephus, Jewish historian publishes his work Antiquities of the Jews. The one directly concerning Jesus has come to be known as the Testimonium Flavianum. The passage of Jesus appears in book 18, Chapter 3, Item 3 reads: Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man; for he was doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many Jews and many Gentiles. He was the Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day; as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.
95-96AD-Persecution of Christians under Roman Emperor Domitian. The Apostle John is exiled to the island of Patmos where he writes the book of Revelation of Jesus Christ our Lord.
98AD-Domitian is assassinated. Nerva becomes Emperor of Rome and orders persecution of the Christians to end and release all prisoners. The Apostle John is released from Patmos and lives his remaining days in Ephesus.
c.100AD-Galen laid the foundation for the study of anatomy and physiology. Ptolemy developed a theory that the earth is the center of the universe.
2nd Century A.D.
105AD-The Chinese invented paper.
106AD-City of Petra, in Ammon present southwestern Jordan built in mountains of rock after establishment of Roman rule. John, the last of the twelve Apostles dies at Ephesus.
107AD-Ignatius, bishop of Antioch and disciple of St. John, is executed by Emperor Trajan by throwing him to the lions in the arena at Rome. Ignatius’ Letters are noteworthy documents of the early Christian church.
116AD-The Roman historian Tacitus wrote concerning the Great Fire of Rome in his Annals where emperor Nero ordered it burned and to suppress the rumor he falsely charged and punished Christians, who were hated for their enormities. Jesus Christ (Christus) founder of the name was put to death by Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judea in the reign of Tiberius.
122 AD - Roman Emperor Hadrian builds wall across England to separate the Romans from the Celtic barbarians of the north. Hadrian’s Wall stills stands to this day.
135 AD -The second Jewish revolt against Rome. Akiba Ben Joseph and Simon Bar Kokeba’s revolt from Roman rule subdued at the loss of 500,000 lives. Emperor Hadrian stamps out the revolt executed Akiba and banished the Jews from Jerusalem. The 12 tribes of Israel are scattered abroad to other nations. The city is renamed Aelia Capitolina. Akiba Ben Joseph was the first Jewish scholar to organize the Oral Law known as the Mishnah of Rabbi Akiba and is one of the 10 martyrs mentioned in the Jewish prayer of repentance. Cassius Dio in Loeb Classical Texts, Roman History 69.12-14, records this history.
150 AD -Early church fathers used Latin, Syriac, and Coptic translations of the Greek Testament helped reconstruct the original text.
156AD-King Lucius makes a royal decree to proclaim Christianity the national faith of Britain in Winchester.
165? AD -St. Justin the Martyr a convert from Ephesus gave his life in defense of Christianity, wrote Apologies and Dialogue with the Jew Tryphon. He was beheaded because his religious beliefs went against Roman law.
167 AD -Polycarp, disciple of Apostle John and Bishop of Smyrna (now Turkey) is martyred by burning at the stake because he would not renounce Christ.
179AD-The first church was erected and dedicated to the memory of St. Peter in commemoration of his evangelizing labors in Britain, known as “St. Peter’s of Cornhill” bears historic fact and dates by order of King Lucius, descendent of Arviragus.
192AD-Tertullian, early Father of the Church, wrote, “The extremities of Spain, the various parts of Gaul (France), the regions of Britain, which have never been penetrated by the Romans Arms, have received the religion of Christ.” (Def. Fidei, 179)
c. 200 AD -Rabbi Judah Hanasi of Palestine finished codifying the Mishnah.
3rd Century A.D.
202 AD -Tertullian the historian first mentions Sunday rest: “We, however (just as tradition has taught us), on the day of the Lord’s Resurrection ought to guard not only against kneeling, but every posture and office of solicitude, deferring even our businesses lest we give any place to the devil.” (This was more than 170 years after the death, burial, and resurrection of the Messiah, Jesus Christ!)
235 AD -Christian community thrived in the city of Iconium (present Konya a province in Turkey).
240AD-Origen writes early Christian evidence that Jesus is the brother of James ben Yosef (son of Joseph). Origen declares Jesus of Nazareth as the Christ and the testimonium declares Jesus as the Christ. Origen declares that there will be a resurrection of the dead and the coming kingdom of God in the future. He also writes, “The divine goodness of Our Lord and Saviour is equally diffused among the Britons, the Africans, and other nations of the world.”
249 AD -Roman emperor Decius ordered persecution of the Christians.
262AD-The Goths destroy the great temple of Ephesus.
269 AD -Christian martyr, St. Valentine is beheaded on February 14 at Palatine Hill in Rome during the persecution of Emperor Claudius the Goth.
272 AD -The Goths, a confederation of Germanic tribes, settle in Dacia (present Romania and Hungary). They are the first Germanic people to become Christians. The Goths in Dacia were known as the Visigoths; those north of the Black Sea became the Ostrogoths.
c.275 AD -Arius, a priest of Alexandria, Egypt, founded Arianism. He maintained that Christ was not equal to the Father in the Trinity. Rather as the Son of God, he was created by the Father for the salvation of men. Claiming that Christ had not always existed. Arius’ greatest enemy, Athanaisus defended the Trinity, saying Christ is the Son of God and is equal to the Father in all ways. Arius gained many powerful supporters and the conflict spread until Constantine called the Council of Nicaea in 325.
284 AD -Illyricum becomes one of four prefectures of the Roman Empire under Emperor Diocletian. The territory covers roughly what is now Yugoslavia, and was the home of many later emperors, and recruiting area of the Roman army.
c.285-339 AD -Eusebius of Caesarea wrote his great work Historia Ecclesiastica (Ecclesiastical History). He was known as the “Father of Church History.” He wrote of the Apostle Andrew preached in Scythia until he was crucified on an X-shaped cross-called the crux decussata. (Published under Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History by C.F. Cruse)
293 AD -The Emperor Diocletian divided the Roman Empire into four prefectures and set up two capitols in the East and West for administrative purposes. (Daniel 2)
300AD-A giant asteroid hits near Rome, Italy creating several craters miles apart from each other. Dorotheous, bishop of Tyre, stated that, ”Aristobulus, whom Paul saluted was bishop of Britain and Simon Zelotes the apostle also came to Britain.” (Romans 16:10)
4th Century A.D.
302-303 AD -Beginning of Christians persecution under Emperor Diocletian.
303AD-Victorinus, Bishop of Pettau is martyred.
306-337 AD -Reign of Constantine the Great.
313 AD -Constantine ends the persecution of Christians and granted Christianity and all religions legalized in Roman Empire: Edict of Milan. It provided restitution of property seized during the persecutions by Diocletian to Christians as individuals and a corporate community. It promised that people who presently held that property could apply to the state for compensation for their loss.
320 AD -India’s Golden Age under the rule of the Gupta dynasty. Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea, speaks of Apostolic missions to Britain as a matter of disrepute: The Apostles passed beyond the ocean to the isles called the Britanic Isles.
321 AD -Roman Emperor Constantine gives the following edict, “On the venerable day of the Sun let all magistrates and people…rest.” (article: “Sunday Legislation,” Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge). This is contrary to God’s commandment for the Sabbath day. God’s eternal law never changed.
324 AD -Constantine declares Christianity as official religion of Rome. Eusebius wrote on the writing of Flavius Josephus giving evidence that the passage of Christ’s existence existed in some manuscripts of the Antiquities of the Jews at that time.
324-640 AD -The Byzantines rule the Holy Land of Israel.
325 AD -Council of Nicaea (Iznik, Turkey) called by Constantine dealt with the Arian heresy and other various heresies that arose in the 300 years since Christ’s time. The priest Arius is condemned and banished from the church for promoting Arianism. The Council adopted a Creed called the Nicene Creed as a universal statement and affirmation of the Orthodox beliefs of the Christian church. The date of Easter was determined to be on the first day of the week, Sunday and it was to be no earlier than March 22 and no later than April 25 in any year. The holy days depend upon the date of Easter. Lent begins 46 days before Easter with Ash Wednesday. Palm Sunday is the Sunday before Easter. Good Friday is Friday before Easter. Passion Week is the week before Palm Sunday. Holy Week is the week ending with Easter. Pentecost is 7 weeks after Easter. (These do not correspond to the Jewish calendar and it’s observance of the holy days of the Lord God, Yahveh. The Passover is in the month of Nisan in the spring. Pentecost is 50 days after the Passover.)
330 AD -Constantine moves capital from Rome to Constantinople (present day Istanbul, Turkey).
332 AD -Emperor Constantine starts the construction of Christian sites in Jerusalem.
340AD-Macarius of Egypt ordained a priest founded a colony of monks in the desert of Scetis, one of the chief centers of Egyptian monasticism (Bible college).
348 AD -Cyril of Jerusalem plays a prominent part in the struggles regarding the Trinity. He is banished from Jerusalem three times for opposing Arianism.
350 AD -Ulfilas translates portions of scripture into Gothic as apostle to the Goths. Ulfilas brought the gospel of Jesus Christ to the warrior people north of the Rhine and Danube Rivers the region of present day Germany. Until this time the Scriptures, Old and New, were Hebrew, Aramaic, Latin and Greek the common languages at this time.
367 AD -The church scholars finalize the New Testament Canon as the authoritative Scripture. They consider other writings as apocryphal, or doubtful authorship. Later, church councils ratified the decisions regarding the canon.
373AD-Ephraim the Syrian wrote On the Last Times, the Anti-Christ and the End-Time Tribulation in “The Book of the Cave of Treasures.”
376 AD -The Visigoths are threatened by the Huns from the east. The Visigoths seek refuge along the northern boundaries of the Roman Empire.
378 AD -Armies of Visigoths under Fridigern crushed the Roman legions of Emperor Valens at Adrainople (now Edirne, Turkey). The battle weakened the Roman Empire.
380 AD -Edict by Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire.
381 AD -Cyril of Jerusalem is present as one of the 150 orthodox bishops at the Council of Constantinople.
386 AD -Augustine of Hippo converted.
395 AD -The Roman Empire split into the East Roman Empire and the West Roman Empire.
397 AD -The New Testament is canonized at the Council of Carthage.
400 AD -Augustine’s Confessions. King Gunderic led his Vandals into central and southern Spain, established a kingdom from Ebro River to Gibraltar. The Vandals named it Vandalusia. Southern Spain is still called Andalusia.
5th Century A.D.
401AD-King Alaric and the Visigoths invade Italy and begin a series of attacks on the Western Empire.
405-406 AD -St. Jerome finishes translation of Bible in Latin (Vulgate).
408-409AD-Alaric and his Visigoths attack Rome. Alaric accepts huge ransoms to end both sieges.
410 AD -Rome captured and sacked by the Visigoths under their king Alaric but spared its churches. Alaric’s successors establish a kingdom in Gaul (France) and Spain. Alaric dies suddenly in Cosenza, Italy.
411 AD -Augustine writes City of God a defense of Christianity and the Catholic Church. In his writings he declares that the world will end contrary to the teaching of the Holy Bible, which will be the Millennium at the end of the age, man’s final battle, and the eternal Kingdom of God. (Pelagian Heresy)
412 AD -Cyril serves as Patriarch of Alexandria and shaped much of the Catholic doctrine on the Trinity and the Person of Christ.
429 AD -The Vandals invades North Africa.
430AD-Bishop Augustine of Hippo dies during the famous North African siege of the Vandals. Theodoret, bishop of Cyprus in Syria states that “Paul liberated from his first captivity at Rome, preached the Gospel to the Britons and others in the West and the Cymry (the Welsh).” Aristobulus, the bishop traveled to Briton. (Romans 16:10)
431 AD -Cyril of Alexandria presided over the Council of Ephesus, which condemned Nestorius.
432 AD -St. Patrick brings the gospel to Ireland.
434AD-Attila becomes king of the Huns. The Hunnish kingdom was centered roughly in present day Hungary. Attila ruled joined with his brother Bleda until he murdered Bleda in 445.
435 AD -The Vandals enter into a treaty with the Romans and recognized them as the legitimate continuation of the empire of North Africa.
435-439AD-Attila conquered many barbarian people in eastern and central Europe.
441-443AD-Attila and his Hunnish army loots the east Roman Empire and its provinces in southeastern Europe.
449 AD -Angles, Saxons, and the Jutes invaded Britain. King Vortigern fought with Hengist, leader of the Jutes, whose victory led to the founding of the kingdom of Kent.
451 AD -Council of Chalcedon formed. The Council addressed the issue of the two natures of Christ. The council affirmed that Christ was both God and man. Fighting in northeast France at Châlons-sur-Marne, Roman legions of Flavius Aëtius and Visigoth soldiers under Theodoric I saved Europe from an invasion by Attila and his Hun armies.
452 AD -Attila, King of the Huns, invade Italy and threatened Rome, but withdrew attacking when Pope Leo I intervened.
453 AD -Attila the Hun dies liberating the Ostrogoths from Hunnish rule. The Ostrogoths settle in central Europe.
455 AD -Genseric, leader of the Vandals, threatened to destroy Rome, but was saved by Pope Leo I.
471 AD -Theodoric unites the Ostrogoths in central Europe.
476 AD -Fall of Rome. Western Roman Empire conquered by Odoacer chieftain of the Herulii (Germanic), murdered Romulus Augustulus, the last western Roman emperor ending 445 years of the Roman Empire from 31BC. Ten tribes would evolve into forming modern Europe; these are the Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Franks (French), Vandals, Alemannians (Germans), Sueves, Anglo-Saxons (English), Heruls, Lombards (Italians), and Burgundians. Seven still exist today in Europe.
486 AD -Clovis became king of the Franks and founded the Merovingian dynasty, rulers of the first French state. He defeated the Roman governor of Gaul (France).
488 AD -Zeno the eastern Roman emperor dispatched Theodoric, the leader of the Ostrogoths, to drive out the Herulii.
493 AD -Theodoric, leader of the Ostrogoths conquered Italy.
c. 500 AD -Babylonian scholars completed the Talmud. The most accepted of the Jewish civil, ethical and religious laws is the Gemara. The Irish invade Scotland. New trade routes in the Middle East cause the city of Petra to be abandoned fulfilling a prophecy of Obadiah. The monk Dionysius Exiguus introduced the present custom of reckoning time by counting the years from the birth of Christ, which he miscalculated 4 to 6 years later than the actual date.
6th Century A.D.
c. 500-542 AD -Reign of King Arthur in England.
511AD-Clovis I, the powerful Merovingian king dies and the Merovingian (Frankish) kingdom included northern Gaul, Aquitaine, and some territory east of the Rhine River. His four sons divided up the kingdom. During their reign the kingdom grew to include Burgundy, Provence, Thuringia, and Bavaria. But the kingdom weakened.
527-565 AD -Justinian I of Macedonia (present Yugoslavia) ruled the Byzantine Empire and developed the famous Justinian code of law, the Body of Civil Law the basis of legal principles used in many present day nations.
c. 530 AD -Justinian I began a series of war against the Vandals, Ostrogoths, and Visigoths who conquered most of the West Roman Empire in the 400’s.
533 AD -General Belisarius was sent from Constantinople to Africa to expel the Vandals.
533 AD -Vandalic Wars of Justinian begins.
534 AD -Justinian forces captured Vandal territories, destroying the Vandals as a nation.
536 AD -General Belisarius drives the Ostrogoths out of Italy.
538 AD -Holy Roman Empire begins. Emperor Justinian decree the papacy supreme making papal Rome a worldwide power.
544AD-The mysterious Edessa cloth was discovered in Edessa a city between Constantinople and Jerusalem. There was no body found with it. A Byzantine Emperor sent an army to bring it to Constantinople. In 1204, the European Knights of the 4th Crusade sacked Constantinople. The Knights took the Shroud back to France where Margaret Decharne transferred it to the Savoy Family. In 1532, a fire in the Savoy Cathedral in Sambree, France damaged the Shroud. In 1578 the Savoy’s established their Capital in Turin, and took the Shroud with them, where it remains today. It is believe to be the burial cloth of the resurrected Jesus Christ, today called the Shroud of Turin. It was at about this time that mosaic images of Jesus Christ began to appear in churches in Turkey.
548 AD -Vandalic Wars of Justinian come to an end.
550 AD -Justinian’s armies take Northern Africa, Italy, and parts of Spain.
554-800 AD -Imperial restoration of the Roman Empire of the West under terms of the Justinian decree.
560 AD -St. David preached in Wales. The Culdees school founded by Culda on the isle of Iona off the northern coast of Scotland.
563 AD -Columba, the Abbot of Darrow, and his monks converted the Scots and the fierce Picts (painted people) to Christianity.
571-632 AD -Muhammad, son of Abdullah, the founder of Islam is born. (The origins of the name Allah and Islam came from ancient Babylon. Allah is the name of the pagan moon god of Babylonia. The half moon symbol of Islam represents the pagan god. Muhammad’s father’s name means “servant of Allah.”)
573 AD -Germanic tribes invaded and took Spain from the Romans.
c.590AD-The Angles, Saxons and Jutes occupy nearly all of England to the borders of Wales and Scotland. This makes up seven major Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Sussex, Kent, and Wessex.
597 AD -St. Augustine of Canterbury brings the gospel to the Germanic tribes of southern Britain.
603 AD -First St. Paul’s church in London is built.
610 AD -The Koran (Quran) is written. The Feast of All Holy Martyrs or All Saints’ Day is first celebrate on May 13 when Emperor Phocas gave the ancient Roman temple of the Pantheon to Pope Boniface IV as a church.
611 AD -The Omayyad Caliphate established the capital of the Moslem Empire at Damascus.
614 AD -Persia conquers Jerusalem, resulting in the slaughter of 35,000 people and the destruction of church buildings. Muslims desecrated and destroyed of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
622 AD -Founder of Islamic religion, followers believe that Mohammed’s hegira (flight) from Mecca to Medina took place.
623-31 AD -Muhammed and other Muslim rulers spread the Caliphate (Islamic religious rule) across the Middle East and North Africa.
632 AD -Death of Mohammed. Mohammed’s commanders gathered Arab tribesmen from Hijaz, Najd, and Yemen who were commissioned for jihad (Holy War).
634 AD -July 30, The Islamic conquests in the name of Mohammed begin when Byzantine and Islamic forces fight at the Battle of Ajnadain between Jerusalem and Gaza. Sophronius the Christian patriarch of Jerusalem lamented that people in the towns were “chained and nailed for fear.”
636 AD -Moslem Arabs defeated the Christians of the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of the Yarmuk in Syria.
638 AD -Six years after Mohammed’s death, Arab Muslims take Jerusalem and Syria ending three centuries of Roman rule.
640 AD -The Muslims take control of the Holy Land (Israel) they immediately set out to decrease the influence and importance of Christianity and replace it with Islamic presence and rule.
641 AD -Moslem Arabs conquered Persia (present Iran).
642 AD -Muslim conquest of Sassanid Empire. The Arabs complete their conquest of Alexandria in Egypt.
650AD-Islamic Moslems invade Cappadocia, Asia Minor (present Turkey) and massacred Christians. Orthodox churches were carved out of rocks in this location. Some are to be seen to this day with painted icon images inside these churches. Before Constantine legalized Christianity most churches were underground. The Iconoclasm movement defaced most of the icon images from the churches.
661-750 AD -Umayyad Caliphs.
680 AD -Muhammad’s grandson Hussein killed.
687AD-After the Battle of Testry the Merovingian (Frankish) kings were gradually pushed aside by the forerunners of the new royal line, the Carolingians.
691 AD -Dome of the Rock built on the site of the Temple in Jerusalem. By this time, earliest English translations of Scripture portions of the Bible were translated into England’s primary language.
700 AD -Lindisfarne Gospels, illustrated manuscripts written. Feudalism began when Moslems (Muslims) from Africa invaded Europe by way of Spain. Feudalism lasted until 1400.
708 AD -Iconium (present Konya province, Turkey) falls to Muslim rule.
711 AD -The Moslems invaded Spain and began an occupation that lasted about 700 years.
732 AD -Charles Martel led the Franks in defeating the Islamic invaders under Abd-er-Rahman turning them back at Tours, France. The victory prevented the Moslems (Moors) from conquering Europe.
735 AD -Charlemagne sets up the Palace School at his capital in Aachen under the leadership of English scholar Alcuin.
750 AD -The Abbasid Caliphate replaced the Omayyads as rulers of the Moslem Empire, and established a new capital at Baghdad (Iraq).
c.770 AD -The Chinese invented wood-block printing.
771 AD -Charlemagne becomes ruler of the Franks and English.
774 AD -Charlemagne defeats the Lombards kingdom in Italy. He also subdues the Saxons.
787 AD -The second Council of Nicene was called by the Empress Irene and her son Constantine. The Emperor Leo, her deceased husband forbade the use of images for any purposes. The council was called because of opposition to the decree. The Empress revoked the decree after the council laid down principles governing the veneration of images.
788 AD – Charlemagne conquers the Bavarians.
791 AD -Charlemagne overcomes the Slavs and the Avars making possible eastward migration by the Germans.
792 AD -Southern France invaded by Muslim forces.
c.795 AD -Vikings settled in Ireland.
798-820 AD -Muslim conquests across Europe, including Sicily and southern Italy. Charlemagne resists Muslim armies in France and parts of Spain, beginning seven centuries of wars to reclaim Western Europe.
800 AD -Carolingian Empire. Charlemagne crowned emperor by Pope Leo III in St. Peter Basilica on Christmas Day.
814AD-Charlemange’s realm begins to fall apart after his death.
830AD-Egbert, king of Wessex of England subdues the other kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon nation making the first move toward political unity on the island.
840 AD -The Norwegian Vikings founded the city of Dublin. It was the center of viking power in Ireland for many years.
843 AD -The Treaty of Verdun divided Charlemagne’s empire into three parts, and began the national development of France, Germany, and Italy by grandson, Charles I (The Bald) and his two half brothers.
844 AD -Kenneth MacAlpin, King of the Scots, claimed the throne of the Picts, and established Alba, the first united kingdom of Scotland.
845 AD -The Danish Vikings under Chieftain Rollo cross the Seine River and attack Paris.
846 AD -St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome sacked by Muslim army.
862 AD -Rurik, chief of the Varangians (Vikings) established his rule at Novgorod and founded the Russian Empire.
863 AD -Two Greek Christian missionaries, St. Cyril (Constantine) and Methodius converted the Moravians (Slavs) of Bohemia (Czechoslovakia).
c.870 AD -Norwegian Vikings colonized Iceland.
878 AD -Alfred the Great, king of Wessex of England defeated the Danes in the Battle of Edington. Alfred did much to restore peace and to unify England. His descendents became the first to use the title King of all Britain.
890AD-The Anglo-Saxon chronicle began which compiled much of the English language from Old English and Middle English from oral reports and earlier histories. The chronicle is a record of events in England from the beginning of the Christian era until the 1100’s. (There is known to be seven surviving copies are valuable sources of early English history.)
893 AD -Magyar tribes conquered Hungary along the Danube River.
901AD-Agapius, a Christian Arab and Melkite bishop of Hierapolis wrote the Book of the Title a manuscript brings to memory the existence of Jesus Christ. Quoting, “At this time there was a wise man who was called Jesus, his conduct was good, and he was known to be virtuous. Many people from among the Jews and other nations became his disciples. Pilate condemned him to be crucified and to die. Those who became his disciples did not abandon their loyalty to him. They reported that he had appeared to them three days after his crucifixion, and he was alive. They believed he was the Messiah, concerning whom the Prophets have recounted wonders.”
905 AD -The Magyars (Hungary) broke the power of the Great Moravian Empire.
907 AD -King Howell the Good, the lawgiver of Wales, rules the country.
911 AD -German dukes establish the first German monarchy with the election of King Conrad I.
936 AD -The German Saxons become the most powerful group in central Europe.
950 AD -King Harald Bluetooth united Denmark and introduced Christianity in the country.
955 AD -Otto, Duke of the Saxons and King of the Germans, defeat the Magyars who were attempting to invade Western Europe from the East.
962 AD -The Holy Roman Empire begins. Otto, the German Saxon King received the imperial crown at Pavia after restoring Pope John XII to power. This united Germany and Italy.
969 AD -The Fatimids conquered Egypt and made Cairo the center of the Moslem (Muslim) Empire.
985 AD - Eric the Red colonized a Viking colony in Greenland.
987 AD -Hugh Capet became king of France and founded the Capetian dynasty that ruled until 1328. The Carolingian line ends yielding to the growing power of the feudal nobility.
988 AD -Vladimir the Great made Christianity the state religion in the area now known as Ukraine, Russia.
1000 AD -Leif Erikson sails west from Greenland and first explorer to discovers North America.
1000-1200AD-Mayan culture began at Yucatán.
1000-1300-Jews enjoyed a Golden Age of learning in Spain.
1000-1500-The Malinke rulers dominate western Africa.
1009-Muslims dismantle the Church of the Resurrection to its foundation, destroying Golgotha, as well as all sacred gravestones, even digging up all the graves and wipe out all traces of their existence. The authorities took all the other property belonging to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and its pious foundation. Thousands of churches were destroyed.
1013-Ethelred, King of Wessex, flees England and Sweyn becomes king. Later Sweyn’s son Canute succeeds him.
1013-1042-Denmark ruled England.
1016-Canute became king of England and brought the entire country under Danish rule.
1037-The Seljuk Turks conquered most of the Iranian kingdoms.
1052-Edward the Confessor builds Westminster Abbey.
1054-The Great Schism (East-West churches split). Latin speaking churches in the west centered in Rome known as the Roman Catholic church and the Greek speaking churches in the east centered in Constantinople known as the Eastern Orthodox church.
1066-Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror and the Norman forces invade England overthrowing the Saxons under Harold Godwinson ending Anglo-Saxon rule. His officials made a count of its people, land, and property in the Domesday Book.
1071-For a short period Seljuk Turks take Jerusalem and conquered Asia Minor.
1090-Gerard founded the Knights of St. John also called Knights of Malta an order of the Roman Catholic Church in a monastery in Jerusalem. The Normans settle at Cardiff, Wales where a Norman castle is built still stands on the site of an old Roman fort.
1094-El Cid conquered the Moorish city of Valencia in Spain for the Christians.
1095-99-The Crusades launched by Pope Urban II. The Crusades began as a peaceful march of believers led by Peter the Hermit. Most all of them died of starvation or were killed. The expedition went far better with the knights being better warriors, most of them from France. It started out that brings Catholic armies to the Middle East to retake lands lost in 637. Count Robert of Flanders, Godfrey of Bouillon, Count Raymond of Toulouse, and Bohemund, a Norman lord from Sicily, led them. Crusader period begins with massive slaughter of local Jews and Muslims, Jerusalem is established as the capital of the Crusader kingdom.
1099-The Crusaders breech the walls of Jerusalem during the First Crusade. Jerusalem remains under Catholic control until 1187AD.
1119-The order of the Knights of Templars is founded in Jerusalem. They defended the Holy Sepulcher and defend Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land. Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem, gave the Knights of Templars quarters in his palace, built on the site of Solomon’s temple.
1147-49-The Second Crusades ended with the Turks defeating the European armies (French and Germany) at Edessa.
1148-Hildegard of Bingen with her visions in question is put on trial by the Church.
1156-Owen Gwynedd of Wales defeats three English expeditions sent by Henry II to subdue him.
1163-The building of Notre Dame in Paris.
1170-Thomas Becket archbishop of Canterbury opposed King Henry II ‘s attempts to limit the authority of the church. Four knights who were supporters of the king murdered Becket.
1187-Moslem troops under Saladin, Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt, recapture Jerusalem from the Crusaders.
1189-92-The Third Crusades followed the Turkish recapture of Jerusalem in 1187. King Richard I the Lion-Hearted of England defeated Saladin in several battles and recaptured Acre, north of Jerusalem.
1200-1500-The Aztecs and Incas begin their civilization in Mexico and thrive for 300 years.
1201-04-The Fourth Crusade was not against the Moslems at all, but more for political and economic gain. The Venetians and the Crusaders captured Zara, in Dalmatia. Later they seized Constantinople after a fierce battle. The victors remove the Byzantine emperor from the throne and replaced him with Count Baldwin of Flanders. The European Knights of the 4th Crusade sacked Constantinople. The Knights took the Shroud of Jesus (Shroud of Turin) back to France where Margaret Decharne transferred it to the Savoy Family.
1212-The Children’s Crusade began as two armies (French and German) of boys and girls many less than 12 years old. It ended in tragedy when many died of hunger, cold and hardships never reaching the Holy Land. Those that survived were sold as slaves to the Moslems.
1215-Barons of England forced King John to grant the Magna Carta.
1217-21-The Fifth Crusade the Christians captured the town of Damietta at the mouth of the Nile River in Egypt, but gave up in exchange for a truce with the Moslems.
1218-Genghis Khan’s forces crush the empire of the Kara Kitai this conquest brought Mongolian power to the frontier of the Moslem state of Khorezm.
1219-King Valdemar II extended Danish power along the Baltic Sea to Estonia.
1221-Mongols invade Persia.
1223-Genghis Khan and his armies invade Bulgaria in southeast Europe.
1228-29-The Sixth Crusade was a Christian turning point where Emperor Frederick II of the Holy Roman Empire without fighting a single battle bargained with the Moslems to turn over Jerusalem to the Christians. The Holy City remained Christian until the Moslems seized it again in 1244.
1244-Mongols sack Jerusalem. Jerusalem falls to the Moslems.
1248-54-The Seventh Crusade begins after the fall of Jerusalem. King Louis IX of France (St. Louis) led the armies and took Damietta without a fight. The Turks surround and capture the crusaders. They freed St. Louis and his noblemen after the Christians paid a huge ransom. The ancient palace and fortress of Alhambra is built by the Moors at Granada, Spain and was completed around 1354.
1258-Mongols destroy Baghdad (Iraq).
1260-Jerusalem controlled by the Egyptian Mamluk dynasty after defeat of Mongols.
1261-The Venetians and the Crusaders rule of the Byzantine Empire ends.
1264-Kubali Khan establishes his capital in Peking, China.
1268-The Moslems make gains against the Christians in the East. They capture Antioch.
1270-The Eighth Crusade began when King Louis IX takes vengeance against the Moslems of North Africa. He landed his army at Tunis, but he died when he reached Carthage. His army returned to Europe.
1272-Thomas Aquinas completes Summa Theologica.
1273-Rudolf I of Hapsburg elected Emperor of Holy Roman Empire. After a war with the king of Bohemia, Rudolf gave the duchies of Austria, Styria, and Carniola to his sons.
1277-King Edward I of England begins a war with Wales.
1279-Kubali Khan led the Mongols in completing the conquest of China.
c. 1280-Marco Polo explores China and the Orient.
1282-King Edward I of England conquers Wales and killed Llewelyn ap Griffith, Prince of Wales, in battle. Austria becomes possession of the Hapsburg family.
1289-Osman becomes leader of the Ottoman Turks.
1290-England expels the Jewish people.
1291-The Moslems seized Acre, the last Christian foothold in Syria. By this time, Europeans were losing interest in the Holy Land. After Rudolph I of Hapsburg death, Swiss freemen signed a defensive alliance to protect them from the Hapburgs.
1294-Marco Polo visits Tabriz the chief mart of Iranian Azerbaijan. The district once called Albanopolis, now Derbend where Nathanael (Bartholomew), Christ’s apostle was martyred. Derbend is the sea gate through which the wild horsemen of the Steppes (Scythians, Alans, Huns, and Khazars) invaded civilized communities.
1296-John de Baliol and the Scottish people revolt against King Edward I of England because of his plans of conquering Scotland and putting Baliol on the throne and insisted Baliol pay homage to him humiliating the Scots. Baliol was forced to surrender. Edward carried back to London the great Stone of Scone, the coronation stone upon which Scottish kings were crowned for hundreds of years.
1297-The Scots led by William Wallace again rebel against King Edward I of England.
1298-King Edward I defeats the Scots.
1300-There were weak attempts to organize crusades about this time were not successful. Europe turned their attention westward to the Atlantic Ocean and beyond. Large parts of Eastern Europe fall to Ottoman Turk forces and come under the Caliphate in the 14th-16th centuries (300 years of rule).
1301-Edward II son of King Edward I becomes the first English Prince of Wales.
1302-The invention of gunpowder prompted the victory of the Flemish knights to defeat the French knights in the Battle of Courtrai.
1306-After a long struggle with England, Robert Bruce was crowned King of Scotland.
1309-Papal “Babylonian Exile” to Avignon.
1314-After the execution of William Wallace, Robert Bruce took up the struggle. Scotland defended its independence against England at the Battle of Bannockburn. King Edward I’s son, Edward II, Prince of Wales, is beaten in the battle.
1315-Swiss mountaineers at Morgarten trapped completely defeated Hapsburg Austrian army ten times their strength. A long peace followed this victory. Other Swiss cantons joined in the alliance.
1320-Dante writes Divine Comedy. Scotland declares its independence with the signing of the Declaration of Arbroath by Robert Bruce and his nobles. In it the Scots made the statement they “journeyed from Greater Scythia by way of the Tyrrhenian Sea…they came twelve hundred years after the people of Israel crossed the Red Sea ca. 250BC. The 10 tribes of Northern Israel were uprooted from their homeland in the 8th century before Christ by their captors. Losing their identity they became known in history in a variety of names, such as Cymri (Welsh), Celts and Scyths. (This ancient letter is on display in a glass case in the Register House in Edinburgh.) (Colossians 3:11)
1326-The Ottomans captured Bursa. This begins the Ottoman Empire.
1328-Edward III recognized Robert Bruce as King Robert I of Scotland.
1337-Giotto of Florence considered the greatest of all Italian Gothic painters dies.
1337-1453-The Hundred Years’ War between England and France. England lost its lands on the continent.
1346-Longbowmen from England defeated the French knights in the Battle of Crécy. Charles IV of Luxembourg, becomes king of Germany and Bohemia.
1347-King Charles of Bohemia (present Czechoslovakia) becomes Emperor Charles IV of the Holy Roman Empire. He ruled from Prague. This was the Golden Age for the Czech people.
1347-51-Black Death (Bubonic plague) kills one-third of population in England.
1349-50-Epidemic of the bubonic plague killed about half the people of Norway.
1353-Rudolf IV took the title of Archduke of Austria.
1356-The Golden Bull of Charles IV issued declared there were to be seven German Imperial Electors and later increased to nine. The English defeat the French at the Battle of Poitiers.
1360-Ottoman Turks take over Adrianople, now Edirne, Turkey.
1375-King Edward III of England is forced to withdraw from the struggle during the Hundred Years War losing most of his French possessions. England was exhausted.
1378-The Papal Schism.
c. 1380-82-John Wycliffe translates both Testaments of the Bible into English. The Oxford theologian completed New Testament translation from the Latin Vulgate in 1380 and the Old Testament translation in 1382. Each volume was copied by hand. Few people knew how to obtain a copy of the Scripture. Each bible was prohibitively expensive.
1386-The Austrians are defeated by the Swiss at the battle of Sempach.
1388-The Austrians are defeated by the Swiss at the battle of Näfels.
1397-Queen Margaret united Denmark, Norway and Sweden in the Union of Kalmar.
1402-The Welsh rebel Owen Glendower (Owain Glyndŵr) revolted against English rule in Wales driving them out.
1415-John Huss, Czech reformer attacked abuses in the church preceded the Protestant Reformation, betrayed by the Council of Constance is burned as a martyr at the stake as a heretic in Constance. The English defeat the French in the Battle of Agincourt.
1416-After the death of John Huss, an amazing military genius and blind General Jan Zizka led Bohemian peasants with farm implements and defeated 100,000 of the finest knights in the world.
1422-Charles VII, succeeded his father Charles VI as king of France. Joan of Arc made his reign notable.
1425-Thomas á Kempis wrote Imitation of Christ while living at Mount St. Agnes, near Zwolle, the Netherlands. He also wrote Meditations of Christ’s Life, The Soul’s Soliloquy, and Garden of Roses.
1429-Joan of Arc with the French army forced the English, under the Earl of Suffolk, to give up the siege of Orléans in France.
1431-Joan of Arc led French army to victory over England during Hundred Years War. She was put on trial as a heretic because of her claims she was instructed by the saints and was burned at the stake. After her death, the French continue the progress she had begun.
1432-Jan Van Eyck founder of the Flemish painting movement completed the great Ghent Altarpiece (a triptych painted two stories high containing a detailed allegory called The Adoration of the Lamb).
1434-After twenty years of religious wars in Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) the Protestants and Roman Catholics compromise guaranteeing religious toleration. It was often violated but remained in force until 1620.
1438-Albert II of Hapsburg is given the crown of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire included territory in Germany, Bohemia (Czechoslovakia), Burgundy (Switzerland), Italy, Papal States, Corsica, and Sardinia. Austria being the leading country of the Holy Roman Empire until 1806.
1449-The first population census takes place in Nuremberg, Germany.
1453-Constantinople falls; Ottoman Turks under Mohammed II capture capital (Istanbul) and kills the last emperor, Constantine XI that ends the Byzantine Empire.
1455-Johannes Gutenberg, German, invented movable woodblock type prints the first Bible. This printing was a standard method of mass-producing books. Gutenberg refined the process by creating individual characters, capital and lower case letters, punctuation marks and numbers in reverse using pressed steel. The speed of his new technique lowered the cost of book production and increased the availability of books including the Bible.
1461-Edward IV, son of Richard, Duke of York becomes king when houses York and Lancaster were fighting the Wars of the Roses. As leader of the Yorkists he defeated his opponents at Towton and won the crown from Henry VI of the house of Lancaster.
1471-1526-Polish kings rule Bohemia.
1472-The marriage of Ivan the Great, Duke of Muscovy, and Zoe, niece and heir to the last eastern emperor, Constantine XI, established the claim of Russian rulers to be successors of the Greek emperors and protectors of Orthodox Christianity. Ivan takes the title of Czar.
1476-Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales published. The Swiss defeated the Burgundians at the battles of Grandson and Morat.
1479-The Spanish Inquisition begins.
1480’s-Leonardo da Vinci painted a mural, The Last Supper, in the dining hall of the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie.
1485-Henry Tudor, a Welsh prince, becomes King Henry VII of England.
1492-Christopher Columbus discovers the Americas (West Indies, Caribbean) claims it for Spain. The Spaniard Catholic forces under Ferdinand and Isabella captured Granada and ended the rule of Spain by the Moslem Moors driving them from Europe. Ferdinand and Isabella expelled all Jews from Spain. Europe turned toward America to satisfy its ambition for expansion.
1497-Italian merchant-explorer, Amerigo Vespucci discovers and explores the coast of South America.
1498-Savonarola, Dominican friar and preacher hanged and burned as a heretic. Christopher Columbus first set foot on the mainland of America on his third voyage.
1499-French troops seized Milan, Italy the Duke Lodovico Sforza fled. Leonardo da Vinci returns to Florence where he paints the portrait of the wife of a merchant, Giocondo. The painting is the now famous The Mona Lisa or La Gioconda. The Swiss won complete independence from the Holy Roman Empire.
1500-Leonardo da Vinci recognized the importance of observation and experimentation in learning. He used experiment to make many discoveries.
1506-Huldreich Zwingli became parish priest at Glarus, Switzerland until 1516. He served as a chaplain for Swiss troops in Italy, and participated in two or three campaigns. On his return to Glarus he protested against using Swiss troops as paid professional soldiers in European wars. His writings made him unpopular, and he had to leave Glarus.
1512-Huldreich Zwingli, Swiss clergyman, wrote a history of the saints and martyrs as given in the legend of the church. He led the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland. He objected to certain practices in the Roman Catholic Church and demanded reforms. He preached against fasting, veneration of saints, and insisted that priests marry. Above all, he preached against the political power of the pope.
1513-Legends of a fountain of youth brought the Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León to the Florida region in North America. Ponce de León claimed the region for Spain and named it Florida, meaning full of flowers.
1516-Ottoman Empire defeats the Egyptian Mamluks, seizing control of Palestine and Jerusalem. Erasmus publishes the Greek New Testament. Thomas More publishes his book, Utopia in Latin about an imaginary land with an ideal government. It also criticized social and economic conditions of More’s times. Charles V, the grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain and Emperor Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy becomes king of Spain.
1517-The Reformation in Germany begins. Martin Luther ignited the Protestant Reformation by posting the Ninety-five Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany. Turks take Jerusalem and force Christians to leave. On Oct. 7, The Battle of Lepanto is fought at the northern edge of the Gulf of Patras, off the coast of western Greece, giving Christians their first victory against the Ottoman Empire (Turkish). A flet of 300 ships from Venice, Spain, and the Papal states under Don John of Austria defeated the Turkish fleet under Ali Pasha. This battle marked a turning point of Moslem power in Europe.
1519- Charles V becomes Holy Roman Emperor. Montezuma king of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlán, Mexico is killed in an uprising led by Cortes.
1519-22-Ferdinand Magellan commanded the first voyage around the world that takes three years.
1520-Stephen’s Textus Receptus (Received Text) was the accepted standard of the Greek New Testament for three centuries. Suleiman I made the Ottoman Empire an important power in European politics. The Book of the Dean of Lismore was the first important manuscript of Scottish Gaelic; it included Scottish and Irish ballades and Common Gaelic Bardic poetry.
1521-Ponce de León returns to Florida to start a colony but is severely wounded in battle with Indians. His followers fled and Ponce de León dies soon afterward.
1526-Reformation movement in England. William Tyndale’s New Testament published. Tyndale is martyred shortly after for translating the Bible into English. Louis II, king of Bohemia and Hungary, is killed by the Turks at the Battle of Mohacs. Hapsburg rule began after Louis II ‘s death, Archduke Ferdinand of Austria is elected as king of Bohemia and Hungary. Babar, the Moslem ruler of Kabul, Afghanistan who conquered India, established the Mogul Empire.
1528-Panfilo de Narváez led a Spanish expedition into Florida region of North America.
1530-Hapsburg Dynasty. Pope Clement VII crowns Charles V in Bologna. Charles V ruled a vast empire. From his mother Joan, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, he inherited Spain and all Spanish possessions in the New World. From his father he inherited the Hapsburg domains in Germany, Italy, and central Europe.
1534-Henry VIII establishes Church of England separating from the Roman Catholic Church.
1535-Sir Thomas More “The Man for All Seasons” beheaded for high treason by King Henry VIII because he would not supported the king’s plan to divorce Catherine of Aragon in defiance of the pope.
1536-William Tyndale’s New Testament reaches the shores of England. Tyndale is executed in Belgium; his last words were “Lord open the King of England eyes.” King Henry VIII united Wales and England. John Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion is published in Geneva, Switzerland.
1538-John Calvin is expelled from Geneva facing strong opposition of his strict rule.
1539-The first printing press in the Western Hemisphere began operating in Mexico City. Hernando de Soto landed an expedition in the Tampa Bay Florida area that went beyond the Florida region and discovered the Mississippi River in 1541.
1540-Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led a Spanish expedition into the Arizona region of North America.
1541-Calvin Reform Party wins in Geneva; Calvin returns and perfects an autocratic system of political and religious government. Hernando de Soto led a Spanish expedition into the lower Mississippi River area.
1543-Nicolaus Copernicus publishes his masterpieces, Concerning the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres. Copernicus demonstrates how the earth’s motions could be used to explain motions of other heavenly bodies. Copernicus cited God in His works. His theory that the earth and other planets move around the sun laid the background for modern astronomy.
1545-Council of Trent in Austria held in December to restate doctrines of the Catholic Church. Reformers wanted all Christians to be represented so that disputed doctrines were discussed and rid the Church of abuses. Wars and religious disturbances interrupted the sittings and works wasn’t completed until 1563, Pope Pius IV confirmed its decrees.
1546-Scottish religious reformer George Wishart is tried for heresy, or disbelief in Roman Catholic doctrines. Cardinal Beaton, Archbishop of St. Andrews, burns him at the stake.
1547-Edward VI succeeds his father King Henry VIII as King of England and Ireland. Because of his short reign his uncle, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, controlled the affairs of the kingdom. Protestantism is established as the state religion.
1549-The first Book of Common Prayer is written by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer and the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion were published.
1555-The Treaty of Augsburg intended as a settlement of religious hostility between the German Protestants and Roman German Catholics only recognized Catholics and Lutherans ended in disagreement of the interpretation would fuel the start of the Thirty Years’ War. Calvinists in southern and central Germany demanded recognition as well.
1557-France is the superpower of this time. Clergyman John Calvin in exile in Geneva, Switzerland fled persecution of Bloody Mary, undertook translation of the complete Bible. Referred to as the Calvin Bible was translated from the original Hebrew and Greek and is claimed to be the true Bible over the present King James Bible and is later replaced by King James, a documented ‘sadist’ and ‘sodomist.’ The Calvin Bible is the preferred Bible by Oliver Cromwell, John Milton, and the Plymouth pilgrims of 1620. William Shakespeare quoted Calvin’s Bible about 5,000 times in his plays. During Bloody Mary’s persecution she put to death some 300 people including Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, and Hugh Latimer all high-ranking Protestant clergymen.
1558-1603-Elizabeth I ruled during England’s “Golden Age.”
1559-John Knox returns to Scotland after Queen Mary’s death begins his career in the Protestant Reformation. He preached against the “idolatry” of the Catholic ritual of the Mass. This began a religious revolution in Scotland. King Henry of France is mortally wounded in a jousting accident. His wife Catherine De Medici resumes rule of France.
1560-The Scottish Parliament founded the Presbyterian Church as the national Church of Scotland. John Knox was the chairman of the committee of Parliament, which at this time prepared the First Scottish Confession of Faith and the First Book of Discipline. These are the standards of faith and government for the Scottish Church.
1561-The followers of John Calvin separate from the Lutherans forming the first great division in the Protestant church. The Belgic Confession is formed.
1562-The Calvinistic creed Heidelberg Catechism is formed.
1564-A group of French Huguenots (French Protestants) established a colony on the St. Johns River. They built Fort Caroline near what is now Jacksonville, Florida. In April, the greatest dramatist, William Shakespeare is born on Henley Street in Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire, England.
1565-Pedro Menéndez de Avilés founded St. Augustine in the Florida region of North America.
1566-The Calvinist’s Second Helvetic Confession is formed. The death of Nostradamus who saw visions of the apocalyptic prophesies of earth. His manuscripts would be revealed in the future of the 20th century. One of his predictions that time on earth would end about December 2012.
1567-Mary, Queen of Scots abdicates the throne after involvement in a private scandal, in favor of her infant son, James VI. This assures John Knox’s success in Protestant Reform and publication of his History of the Reformation of Scotland.
1572-The Massacre of Saint Bartholomew’s Day; French Huguenot persecution, thousands murdered by Roman Catholic conspired by Catherine de Médicis during the reign of her son, King Charles IX. Many Huguenots later fled to America.
1576-The Holy League formed during the religious struggles in France in alliance between the Catholic party of France, the pope, and the king of Spain. Its purpose was to suppress the French Protestants (Huguenots). The Catholics were under Henry of Guise, and the Huguenots were under Henry of Navarre.
1578-Vienna Spanish Riding School famed for the white Lipizzaner stallions begins at the imperial stables at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria (430 years, 2008).
1585-April 9, a small band of 108 men were sent to a new region known as Virginia by Sir Walter Raleigh. This territory stretched from the present state of Pennsylvania to what is now South Carolina. After one year, all except for 15 men returned to England. The following year not one of the 15 men was founded alive.
1587-Aug. 18, Virginia Dare was the first English child born in America. Her parents, Ananias Dare and Ellinor White were members of a band of 117 colonists who settled on Roanoke Island off the shore of what is now North Carolina. John White, the grandfather of Virginia Dare returned to England for needed supplies. This colony was believed to have mysteriously disappeared and come to be called The Lost Colony. The only clue left was the word Croatoan carved on a tree.
1588-England’s naval fleet under Lord Howard defeats the Spanish Armada under Duke of Medina Sidonia. The battle marked the turning point of England’s rise as a dominant sea power. William Morgan translates the Bible into Welsh.
1589-Michelangelo Caravaggio painted in Rome, Genoa and southern Italy is famous for his simple composition and his dramatic use of light and shade called Chiaroscuro. His most famous painting is the Burial of Christ and Christ at Emmaus.
1590-John White’s return trip back to Roanoke Island was delayed because of the Spanish War. Upon his return he found the colony had completely disappeared. The only trace he found was the word Croatoan carved on a tree. The colonists were never found. In Europe, the last Holy League died out when the Catholics were defeated at the Battle of Ivry.
1594-Charles IX plots to kill all Huguenot Protestants in Paris, France. Shakespeare’s first play Henry VI is published. It’s probable performance was ca. 1590-92, followed by Romeo and Juliet.
1600-Galileo emphasized the mathematical interpretation of experiments in science. He discovered many important physical laws.
1603-England and Scotland were united under one king, James I.
1605-William Brewster and William Bradford began the separatist’s movement at Scrooby, England, which would later lead the pilgrims to America. (Matthew 5:14)
1607-April 29, Vicar Robert Hunt and men of the Virginia Company set sail from England to the west Atlantic and land at what is now Cape Henry near Jamestown, Virginia the first settlement of the new North American nation. Hunt dedicated the land to the Lord God in the name of Jesus Christ with the planting of a cross and a prayer for God’s blessing upon the new world and was the first covenant made that the Gospel be preached to this nation and other nations.
1608-Captain John Smith takes control of Jamestown and helps to hold the colony together. The Bohemian Protestants (Germany) organized the Evangelical Union.
1609-The Bohemian Catholics founded the Holy League. The Archbishop of Prague ordered a Protestant church destroyed. The People appeal to Emperor Matthias who ignores their protest. The Protestants rose in revolt. This event marked the beginning of the Thirty Years’ War is known in history as the Defenestration of Prague. The Bohemian Protestants removed the Catholic king, Ferdinand, from the throne, and chose Protestant Frederick, Elector Palatine to replace Ferdinand. To make matters worse Ferdinand was made Holy Roman Emperor, which gave him greater power. Johannes Kepler established astronomy as an exact science.
1610-The arrival of Governor Thomas West, Lord de la Warr, with new settlers and fresh supplies saved Jamestown from abandonment.
1611-King James Authorized Version of the Bible published.
1612-John Rolfe helped save the Virginia colony by introducing tobacco growing and exporting.
1614-Treaty between Jamestown settlers and Chief Powhatan was signed. Powhatan’s daughter Pocahontas married John Rolfe.
1618-Native American Indians break treaty after Powhatan’s death. Protestants of Bohemia declare war on the Hapsburgs, but are later defeated at the Battle of White Mountain in 1620. The Protestant revolt in Bohemia was part of the religious warfare that would go on for the next thirty years in Europe until 1648 (Thirty Years’ War).
1618-1648-The Thirty Years’ War, the last of the great religious wars of Europe. Began as a civil war between the Protestants and Roman Catholics in the German states.
1619-America’s first representative legislature, the House of Burgesses, met in Jamestown, VA. Dutch traders brought the first African Negroes to Jamestown. Pilgrims sail from Plymouth, England on the Mayflower to America.
1620-Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock in Massachusetts. Governor John Carver and Chief Maasasoit of the Wampanoag arranged a treaty of peace, which lasted until Maasasoit died in 1661. Soon after, Carver dies, William Bradford becomes governor. Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand’s general Johan Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, defeated the Bohemian Protestants at the famous Battle of White Mountain. This defeat cost the Protestants their independence. The rebellion was stamped out, and Catholicism again became the state religion.
1621-The bountiful harvests that year led Governor William Bradford to declare a celebration. In the autumn, Pilgrims and Native American Indians have a three-day festival called the first Thanksgiving. Two Indians by the name of Squanto and Samoset helped the settlers survive their first winter in Massachusetts. The Dutch West India Company chartered.
1622-Many settlers killed by Indians led by Chief Opechancanough brother of Powhatan in Jamestown massacre along a 140-mile front.
1623-New Hampshire becomes third permanent colony.
1624-Virginia became a royal colony. New York becomes fourth permanent colony.
1625-1629-The Protestant king of Denmark, Christian IV, aided by several countries, opposed Ferdinand’s forces in Saxony. The armies of general Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein, aided by the Holy League under the leadership of General Tilly defeated the Danish king. Christian IV signed the Treaty of Lübeck in 1629 and withdrew from Saxony. The Emperor issued the Edict of Restitution. This document demanded all Protestant possessions be returned to the Catholics. This Edict caused new friction in Germany.
1630-Swedish king, Gustavus Adolphus, the Lion of the North sets sail with his army to defend the city of Magdeburg which Count Tilly was besieging, but arrived too late to prevent the destruction of Magdeburg. René Descartes a French mathematician, scientist, and philosopher conclusions established the existence of God. He invented analytic geometry.
1631-The Swedish army defeated Tilly in the Battle of Breitenfeld.
1632-The Swedish forces win another important battle, in which Tilly is killed. In the famous Battle of Lutzen, the Swedes win defeating Wallenstein’s army and Spanish alliances under Philip IV, but Gustavus Adolphus is killed in the battle. Galileo published his masterpiece, A Dialogue on the Two Principal Systems of the World. The Catholic Church, Holy Inquisition, persecuted him for his theories that the solar system was centered on the sun and his belief in the Copernicus theory.
1633-Connecticut is added to the American colonies as the fifth permanent settlement.
1634-After twelve years of warfare, the Indians and white settlers at Jamestown, Virginia make a peace treaty. The Swedish army is destroyed in the Battle of Nördlingen. The Emperor was suspected that Wallenstein was negotiating with the Protestants and ordered his arrest. Wallenstein tried to escape, but was assassinated. Maryland follows as the sixth permanent American colonial settlement.
1635-Cardinal Richelieu sent a French army into Germany, which joined with a new Swedish army. The war became a struggle between the French Bourbons and the Austrian Hapsburgs. The Protestants and the French allies under French Vicomte de Turenne and Louis II, Prince of Condé won a long series of victories that gave hope to the Protestants in Germany.
1636-The first college in the American colonies was founded. It later became Harvard University. Rhode Island becomes the 7th American colony added.
1637-The Pequot War began between the settlers and the Pequot Indians near West Mystic, Conn.
1638-Delaware is the 8th permanent settlement added to the American colonies.
1639-Stephen Daye established the first press in the American colonies in Cambridge, Mass.
1642-Scottish civil war breaks out after Charles I of the House of Stuart seizes five parliament leaders because they would not submit to his demands to use English forms of worship and violated of the Petition of Right.
1643-Pennsylvania becomes the 9th permanent settlement of the American colonies.
1644-Chief Opechancanough attack the colonists at Jamestown, Virginia killing 300 Englishmen, after two days of fighting the Indians are defeated. Due to misery and hardship of the German people the European countries sent representatives to a peace conference in two different cities of Westphalia. The Catholic and Protestant delegates’ negotiations dragged on for four years. Calvin’s Bible is replaced by the King James version because of the state of England needed a Bible that was more compliant to its agenda. King James declares Calvin’s Bible ‘seditious’ and made its possessions a felony. Oliver Cromwell defeated King Charles I at the Battle of Marston Moor.
1645-Oliver Cromwell defeated King Charles I at the Battle of Naseby.
1648-The Peace of Westphalia is signed. By this treaty France acquired Alsace and Loraine, Sweden got control of the mouths of the Oder, Elbe, and Weser rivers, and Calvinism was put on an equal footing with Catholicism and Lutheranism. Switzerland gained their independence. Germany was in a pitiful condition by the time the Thirty Years’ War ended. More than half the people were killed. Those who survived saw nothing but ruin. It took 200 years for Germany to recover from the effects of the war. Thousands of people left Europe, especially Germans, who went to America to build a new life.
1649-Charles I is convicted of treason and executed during a Puritan rebellion led by Oliver Cromwell.
1651-Charles II, son of Charles I and first of the restored Stuart line, proclaimed king by the Scots, but Cromwell defeats his army and he flees to France.
1653-North Carolina becomes the 10th permanent settlement of the American colonies.
1654-The first Jewish settlers landed in New Amsterdam, New York.
1658-Oliver Cromwell dies the English become dissatisfied with the state and invite Charles II to return to be crowned king.
1660-New Jersey becomes the 11th permanent settlement of the American colonies.
1661-Charles II is crowned king of England. Important events of his reign include two wars with the Dutch, the great plague, the Great Fire of London, the Rye House Plot, and the passage of the Habeas Corpus Act.
1663-King Charles II of England grants to the colonists of Rhode Island a royal charter that guarantees religious freedom. This charter remains on display in the Providence, Rhode Island statehouse.
1665-The first English newspaper, the London Gazette, appeared. The first Seventh-day Sabbath Christians arrive in Newport, Rhode Island.
1665-1667-Sir Isaac Newton made three discoveries within 18 months. These three discoveries were the theory of gravity, the secret of light and color, and the invention of a branch of mathematics, calculus. Newton saw numbers as involved in understanding God’s plan.
1666-The Great Fire of London destroyed 13,000 buildings and left thousands of persons homeless. It’s unknown the number killed in the fire. Jean Baptiste Talon completed the first census of the people of Canada (then known as New France).
1670-South Carolina becomes the 12th permanent settlement of the American colonies.
1671-John Milton writes Paradise Lost.
1675-King Philip’s War led by Philip (Metacomet) son of Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoag Indians.
1676-Nathaniel Bacon led discontented colonists in a rebellion against the British government’s Navigation Acts restricting colonial trade. This is known as the Bacon’s Rebellion. Philip (Metacomet) is killed during the King Philip War at South Kingston, R.I.
1678-John Bunyan writes The Pilgrim’s Progress in prison. Fort Niagara, near Youngstown, N.Y. is built will later serve as site of the French Indian Wars and the Revolutionary War.
1680-The Pueblo Revolt begins with the invasion of Spaniards in what is now Arizona and New Mexico conquering more than 100 Indian pueblo villages. Led by Popé the Indians besiege Santa Fe.
1682-Robert Cavalier, Sieur de la Salle, reached the mouth of the Mississippi River and claimed the river valley for France.
1683-Vienna, Austria resists the last Muslim siege. The Muslims begin retreat in Eastern Europe.
1686-First Anglican Church worship in Boston.
1687-Sir Isaac Newton’s discoveries on the laws of motion and theories of gravitation were published in Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. The book is considered one of the greatest single contributions in the history of science.
1688-During the Glorious Revolution, the English Parliament offered the throne to William of Orange and Queen Mary II as joint rulers.
1689-The French and Indian Wars begin a long struggle between France and Great Britain for possession of North America. Both countries bribe the Indians for help. The Algonkians side with the French and the Iroquois, traditional enemies of the Algonkians, sided with the British.
1690-Theologian John Locke’s Two Treatises of Government is published. Thomas Jefferson used many of Locke’s ideas to write the Declaration of Independence. The famous Salem Witch Trials began in Salem, Massachusetts.
1693-William and Mary College in Williamsburg, VA is founded.
1698-Fire destroys the Jamestown settlement prompting the settlers to move to Williamsburg.
1699-The Jamestown colonists transfer their capital to Williamsburg. The royal French colony of Louisiana was founded.
1701-1714-War of the Spanish Succession ends Spain’s control of several European countries.
1704-During the battle of Blenheim an allied force under the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene defeated the Bavarians and French under Comte de Tallard.
1707-The Act of Union united England, Scotland, and Wales to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
1709-Peter the Great of Russia destroyed Sweden’s position as a major power. His soldiers crushed an army under Charles XII at Poltava in the Ukraine.
1712-Peace of Utrecht, one of the great international peace settlements in history opened in Utrecht, Holland at the end of the War of the Spanish Succession. In America, it was known as Queen Anne’s War, one of the French and Indian Wars. The settlement made many changes in Europe, and tried to establish balance in power. In America, France ceded Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay Territory to Great Britain, but retained New France (Quebec).
1714-Louis Juchereau de St. Denis founded Natchitoches, the first permanent town in Louisiana.
1715-The English subdue the first Jacobite rebellion with the Highland Scots.
1718-Muslim forces defeated in Austria and Hungary.
1722-The Dutch Admiral Roggeveen discovers Easter Island in the South Pacific about 2,400 miles west of Chile on Easter Sunday.
1728-John Bartram planted America’s first botanical garden.
1730-The Latin Church of the Annunciation is completed in Nazareth, Israel and rises where the home of Mary, the mother of Jesus stood. The ancient well, called Mary’s Well still flows there.
1732-German Seventh-Day Baptists build a religious community, Ephrata Cloisters, in Ephrata, PA. St. Liguori Alphonus founded the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer in Italy and emphasized the power of prayer.
1733-Georgia joins the 12 American colonies making it the 13th colony.
1735-The first Great Awakening begins. Preachers like Rev. Coke, Francis Asbury, Harry Hoosier, Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield began great revival declaration in New England that there’s no other king but Christ Jesus. One of Edward’s best-known sermons is “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.” Griffith Jones and Howell Harries began the Methodist revival in Wales.
1738-John & Charles Wesley converts to Christianity. John Wesley was the founder of Methodism. John was a great evangelist traveling thousands of miles on horseback.
1740-Revivals reach their peak of the Great Awakening as is the Wesleyan revival in England. David Brainerd became missionary to the Native American Indians in New York, New Jersey, and eastern Pennsylvania. After a miracle witnessed by warriors Brainerd life was saved from a rattlesnake while he was praying. The Indians received him as a prophet of God. In Europe, Frederick the Great makes Prussia a great power. War of the Austrian Succession in Europe until 1748.
1741-George F. Handel composed Messiah in less than 25 days. Handel’s earlier oratorio successes were Esther (1733), including Saul (1739), and Israel in Egypt (1739).
1742-April 13, George F. Handel conducts the music masterpiece, Messiah. It’s first performed in Dublin, Ireland.
1743-Benjamin Franklin founded the American Philosophical Society the chief center of colonial science.
1745-Adb al-Wahab founded the Wahabism (Sunni sect) of Islam, the dominant religion of Saudi Arabia and followers from the Persian Gulf states. The Wahhabis are the most extreme of all branches of Islam-violent, intolerant and fanatical. (It’s from this area that the terrorists came who staged the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, New York).
1746-The English won the Battle of Culloden Moor, ending the second Jacobite rebellion. Scotland became one with Great Britain.
1749-The Swedish government compiled the first national census basing its on the records of parishes.
1754-1763-French and Indian War in America.
1757-The British East India Company gained control of Bengal, India after Robert Clive won the Battle of Plassey.
1759-At the Plains of Abraham, James Wolfe’s British troops defeated the Marquis e Montcalm, commanding French and colonial soldiers, on the outskirts of Quebec. The battle won Canada from Great Britain.
1763-The Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years’ War in Europe, and the French and Indian War in America. Proclamation of 1763 issued by the English prohibited American colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. Jews of Newport, R.I., built the earliest synagogue still standing in America.
1764-Sugar and Currency Acts are passed by Great Britain. Francis Asbury among other circuit preachers began riding through America traveling long distances covering whole states to speak before their “parishioners.” Communities were small and widely dispersed to support a pastor and church. Instead they preached in homes, barns, tents, and open sky. This continued up until 1900.
1765-Great Britain passed the Stamp Act requiring the colonists to buy tax stamps for newspapers, playing cards, diplomas, and legal documents. Patrick Henry made his speech against the Stamp Act before the Virginia House of Burgesses. This is considered one of the greatest orations. In according to tradition appear the often-quoted words: “Caesar had his Brutus-Charles the First, his Cromwell-and George the Third-may profit by their example. If this be treason, make the most of it.”
1766-Colonists rebelled the Stamp Act, crying, “Taxation without representation is tyranny.” Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, at the same time passed the Declaratory Act, claiming British authority over the American colonies.
1767-Daniel Boone makes his first journey to Kentucky.
1768-The British government station two regiments in Boston.
1769-The James Watt’s steam engine revolutionizes the cotton mill, rolling mill, and pottery works industry by 1785.
1770-Samuel Adam’s discontentment of the British helped bring on the Boston Massacre. March 5, 60 men surrounded a detachment of British troops and goaded them into firing. Crispus Attucks and two companions were killed instantly. Mayer Amschel Rothschild, son of a Jewish merchant of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, opened a money-exchange house. This is will come to be the most powerful banking and financing institute in Europe. The bank grew out of Frankfurt, Germany with branches in Vienna, London, Naples, and Paris. These banks greatly influenced European affairs. They supported wars and used loans to control political affairs in wars. The present Rothschild estate is in Scotland.
1771-Francis Asbury, a pioneer Methodist preacher becomes the first circuit rider in America. He organized the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States. His Journal (1821) describes his 300,000 miles of travel and the increase of Methodists in America.
1772-Boston town meetings headed by Samuel Adams set up the committee of correspondence, which published a declaration of colonial rights and sent to other towns.
1773-The British pass the Tea Act, which enabled the British to undersell colonial merchants. Dec. 16, Boston Tea Party fuels the coming American Revolution when colonists disguised as Indians raided three British ships and threw their cargoes of tea into the harbor rather than pay a tax on them.
1774-The British pass the Intolerable Act, closing the port of Boston, restricted town meetings, and ordered British troops quartered in the city. Sept. 5, The First Continental Congress representing the 12 colonies first met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the meeting began with prayer for guidance from Psalm 35. Peyton Randolph of Virginia was chosen president of the Congress. Equal voting power was given to the 12 colonies. The leaders of the Congress included Samuel Adams, George Washington, Peyton Randolph, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, John Adams, John Jay, Joseph Galloway, and John Dickinson. Oct. 10, Lord Dunmore’s War marked the first battle of the American Revolution began at Point Pleasant, Virginia (present West Virginia) with 3,000 soldiers defeated 1,000 Indians. Settlers defeat Indians to gain control of the Northwest Territory.
1775-Second Continental Congress is formed with new delegates Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Hancock representing 12 colonies. Daniel Boone opened the Wilderness Road, and made possible the first settlement of Kentucky.
1775-1783-The American Revolution begins against the British Empire. The first battle began at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts on April 19, 1775. On June 17, 1775 the British drove the Americans from Breed’s Hill in the Battle of Bunker Hill. On July 3, 1775 George Washington assumed command of the Continental Army. Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys capture Fort Ticonderoga from the British.
1776-July 4, Delegates of the Second Continental Congress representing 13 colonies sign the Declaration of Independence. The 13 colonies became the 13 U.S. states. They were Virginia, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Connecticut, New York, Maryland, and Delaware. The Battle of Trenton on Dec. 26th was a turning point for the American Revolutionary troops who defeated the Hessians. The Hessians were won over to the American cause and deserted the British army. Thomas Paine publishes his Common Sense.
1777-At the battle of Saratoga, Horatio Gates’ American troops defeated John Burgoyne’s British army. The French then decided to help the colonists to win independence. John Adams elected commissioner to France to negotiate a treaty of alliance. An English embargo prevented Bibles from getting to the colonies in America to soldiers and the common people. Continental Congress called other countries like Holland to send Bibles. (Get the video, The Forbidden Book)
1778-June 28, Molly Pitcher (Mary Ludwig) took the place of her fallen husband, John Casper Hays, became the heroine of the Battle of Monmouth in the American Revolution. In 1822, the Pennsylvania state legislature awarded Molly Pitcher a yearly pension of $40. George Rogers Clark’s campaign won the Northwestern Territory of the United States.
1779-John Newton’s beloved hymn Amazing Grace is printed in the Olney Hymns in England. The Bonhomme Richard under John Paul Jones outfought the Serapis in the American Revolution.
1781-March 1, Congress authorized by the Articles of Confederation took over the work of the Second Continental Congress. This new Congress was known as the Congress of the Confederation. The Battle of Chesapeake Bay is the turning point to force Lord Cornwallis to surrender at Yorktown as the French fleet under Comte de Grasse forced the British naval force led by Thomas Graves to withdraw to New York Harbor following on Oct. 19, Cornwallis surrendered to Washington at Yorktown the American Revolutionary War’s last major battle. James Armistead a double agent under the command of Marquis Lafayette alerted the maneuvers of the British at Yorktown bringing an end to the American Revolution.
1782-The final battle of the American Revolution ended at Ft. Henry in Wheeling, Virginia (present West Virginia) after an attack of the Indians and British. Congress adopted the design for the Great Seal of the United States.
1783-The Treaty of Paris ended the American Revolution. It provided liberal American boundaries extending from the Atlantic Coast to the Mississippi River and from the Great Lakes to the 31st parallel in the south.
1785-John Adams appointed minister to Great Britain. Gov. General Frederick Haldimand granted Chief Joseph Brant (loyalist, American Revolution) and the Mohawk Indians a 675,000-acre tract of land near modern day Brantford, Ontario, Canada. Joseph Brant, at the request of King George III, built a church there, which is to this day the oldest Protestant church in Canada and the only royal chapel outside of Britain.
1787-American political system begins construction. Federal Constitution Convention began. May 13, after Great Britain’s loss of the American colonies had to find a new place to transport its criminals, Captain Arthur Phillip sailed from England with 11 ships and a cargo of convicts including political prisoners, petty lawbreakers, and poor debtors bound for Australia. July 13, the United States Congress passed The Northwest Ordinance. It was the most important law ever adopted. It provided for government of the region north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania. It gave freedom of religious worship, laid the basis for education in the Northwest Territory, just dealing with Indians, and the prohibition of slavery strengthened the ranks of antislavery states in the Union. It formed five complete states: Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin and a part of Minnesota.
1788-The U.S. Constitution is ratified. On Jan. 26 the first Australian settlers established a settlement in Sydney, Australia under Capt. Arthur Phillip.
1789-The French Revolution began with the attack on the Bastille symbolized the hated government of King Louis XVI. George Washington becomes first president of the United States elected unanimously. He is the only president in history to be elected unanimously. John Adams is Vice-President.
1790-The United States begins its first census. The U.S. Constitution provided that a count of the people had to be made within three years of the first meeting of Congress and every 10 years thereafter.
1791-After John Wesley’s death the Methodist movement numbered 79,000 in England and 40,000 in America.
1792-Kentucky is formed from three of Virginia’s western counties.
1793-George Washington re-elected president of the United States. Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin. Yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia.
1794-The United States Navy was formerly established in a law providing for ship construction.
1795-Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain opened the mouth of the Mississippi River to American navigation.
1796-Sept. 19, Washington published Farewell Address, refusing a third term. John Adams is elected President of the United States.
1797-The XYZ Affair aroused bitter resentment against France. Angry Americans spurned French demands for tribute in the form of bribes and loans, and called for war.
1798-Washington commissioned lieutenant general and commander in chief of new United States Army. Amendment 11 to the U.S. Constitution was proclaimed which limited the powers of the federal courts. The Alien and Sedition Acts pass aimed at defeating Thomas Jefferson for the presidency, later Kentucky and Virginia declared it unconstitutional. Department of the Navy is organized by Congress. Benjamin Stoddert is its first Secretary of the Navy. Napoleon’s general Alexander Berthier takes the pope captive to France. French troops invade the Swiss Republic.
1799-Napoleon becomes dictator of France.
1800-Library of Congress established by Congress. The nation’s Capital is moved to Washington, D.C. The Capitol building was declared to be a church building. Spain restores Louisiana Province to France. The Bible is only available in 67 languages out of an estimated 7,000 world languages.
1801-Ireland becomes part of the United Kingdom. The Second Great Awakening revival began at the Cane Ridge camp meeting in Kentucky where 3,000 are converted.
1803-Louisana Purchase from France opened a vast area beyond the Mississippi River to American settlers (Thomas Jefferson administration). John Dalton proposed his atomic theory of matter.
1804-Napoleon Bonaparte becomes Emperor of the French. Lewis and Clark explored the Louisiana Territory. The Hapsburgs took the title of Heredity Emperor of Austria, and lost the title of Holy Roman Emperor. March 7, the British and Foreign Bible Society has its first meeting and raises £700 to begin the printing and distributions of Bibles all around the world. The very first foreign language Bible was printed for Canada and translated in the Mohawk language.
1805-Lewis and Clark expedition with the help of Sacagawea reached the Pacific Coast (present Oregon-Washington region). The Battle of Trafalgar ended a 100-year struggle for domination of the seas led by Lord Nelson and his British fleet of 27 ships defeating the French and Spanish 33 warships.
1806-Napoleon’s armies end the Holy Roman Empire. The Great Awakening revival reached Williams College in Massachusetts called the Haystack Prayer Meeting that began the American foreign mission movement.
1811-Cumberland Road started as part of the federal program to improve canals, roads, and bridges. It is the banner year for revival camp meetings where approximately one-third of all Americans attended them.
1812- War of 1812.
1814-White House was burned by the British. The Star Spangled Banner written by Francis Scott Key during British attack on Baltimore. Treaty of Ghent in Ghent, Belgium ends indecisive War of 1812 between Great Britain and the United States on Dec. 14. Napoleon’s empire collapses leaving Germany and Italy divided.
1815-Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans. Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, ending his ambition to rule Europe. Switzerland became independent of France. The Holy Alliance agreement signed in Paris after the fall of Napoleon. Czar Alexander I of Russia originated the Alliance. All rulers of Europe signed it including Emperor Francis II of Austria (Holy Rome Empire) and King Frederick William III of Prussia (Germany). The agreement said in accordance with the teachings of Christ, the principles of charity, justice, and peace should be the basis of each ruler’s international relations.
1817-The American Colonization Society founded led antislavery agitation in the early years sending freed slaves to Liberia.
1819-Thomas Jefferson founded the University of Virginia. Florida purchased from Spain.
1821-The Missouri Compromise.
1823-Monroe Doctrine declares the American continents are no longer subjects for any new European colonial establishments.
1824-John Quincy Adams is elected U.S. President. Simon Bolivar and Antonio Jose de Sucre defeated the Spaniards at Ayacucho, ending the Latin-American wars for independence.
1825-Opening of the Erie Canal provided improved transportation westward. First Women’s Labor Union organized in the New York City’s garment industry. Czar Nicholas I of Russia crushed the Decembrist uprising, a revolt of discontented nobles.
1826-1828-Russia invades Persia and won land north on the Arak River. The river forms boundary between Iran and Russia.
1828-First Passenger Railroad in America, Baltimore & Ohio, began laying track westward from Baltimore. Webster’s Dictionary was published and gains fame as the finest English dictionary of its time.
1831-John Quincy Adams becomes U.S. president. Cyrus McCormick’s reaper invented near Walnut Grove, VA.
1833-Slavery outlawed in England under the influence of William Wilberforce. John Newton writer of the beloved hymn Amazing Grace inspired Wilberforce. The American Anti-Slavery Society is founded began the abolitionist movement.
1836-Texas declares its independence from Mexico during the Battle of the Alamo.
1837-The Massachusetts’s legislature established free public education under state supervision. The Panic of 1837 under the Van Buren administration began the first great depression due to unlimited sales in public lands banks no longer paid out vast loans without security in gold and silver that resulted in a financial crash and paralyzed the U.S. economy. Queen Victoria succeeded to the British throne and reigns for 63 years until 1901 the longest reign of any British monarch.
1837-38-Rebellion broke out in Upper and Lower Canada.
1838-The Underground Railroad was organized to smuggle Negroes out of slavery in the South.
1839-Charles Goodyear discovered how to vulcanize rubber (If it wasn’t for Mr. Goodyear we’d still be using wagon wheels on our automobiles). The Opium War in China begins and lasts until 1842.
1840-The Union Act joined Upper and Lower Canada.
1841-William Henry Harrison of VA becomes President of the United States of America. Harrison dies a month later. Vice-President John Tyler of VA becomes President.
1842-The Treaty of Nanking ended the Opium War and granted important trading rights in China to Great Britain.
1843-Oct. 13, B’nai B’rith, the oldest secular Jewish association in the United States, is founded in New York City.
1845-The United States annexed Texas.
1845-47-The great potato famine killed about 750,000 Irish natives. Hundreds of thousands of people left Ireland and immigrated to America and other countries to escape starvation, disease, and seek a life of freedom from British oppression.
1846-A treaty with Great Britain added the Oregon country to the United States.
1846-48-Mexican War ended in a U.S. victory and annexation of land from Mexico.
1847-After a measles epidemic, the Marcus Whitman massacre leads to the Cayuse War.
1847-57-Lionel Rothschild, son of Nathan Rothschild, defended British Jews from discrimination, elected four times to the English Parliament, but was not allowed to take his seat because he would not take an oath supporting Christianity.
1848-After his presidential term John Quincy Adams is elected to the House. He is the only president in history to be elected to the House after being president. He later dies while in office. The Monroe Doctrine was extended by President James K. Polk that prohibited European interference in any American countries. The discovery of gold in California drew thousands to the West. First women’s rights convention in Unites States met at Seneca Falls, N.Y. The Great Revolution movement begins in France in Feb. this increased emigration to the United States. The revolution encouraged uprisings in Germany, Austria, and Italy. By the end of March, the people of Hungary won a new and liberal constitution for the working class.
1849-Zachary Taylor of VA becomes President of the United States of America.
1851-52-Harriet Beecher Stowe’s publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin flares up the issue of slavery.
1852-School attendance became compulsory in Massachusetts. This was the first law in the country requiring children to go to school.
1853-The Gadsden Purchase added new territory to the United States (Nebraska-Kansas Territories including Arizona).
1853-54-Commodore Matthew Perry visited Japan and opened two ports to U.S. trade, ending Japan’s isolation.
1854-Kansas-Nebraska Anti-slavery Act is passed. Irish-born Canadian Joseph Scrivens wrote the hymn, What a Friend We Have in Jesus inspired by the tragedies in his life in a letter written to his mother.
1854-56-The Crimean War (Britain, France, Turkey, and Sardinia).
1856-Kansas became a bloody battleground between slavery and antislavery forces.
1857-Sept. 25, The Fulton St. Revival in New York with only six people had profound effect that it moved into the South and spread throughout the world. (When you hear the voice of the Lord, do not harden your hearts like the children of Israel in the wilderness.) Over the next two years, a million converts are added to American churches and a million to churches in England and Ireland. The Dred Scott Decision declares that slaves are not free persons but property.
1858-The Lincoln-Douglas debates in Illinois. The Bessemer Converter makes large amounts of steel.
1859- John Brown’s led a raid into Virginia to free slaves. He seized the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia) before his band of abolitionists was captured. Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species is published made a profound impact on the Bible making the story of Creation as not literally true. Darwin’s book would later give rise to Communism and Nazism. In the future, Darwin’s theory will kill six million or more. Darwin is a member of the East India House Round Table (Chatham House). The Drake Well in Titusville, Pennsylvania was the first successful oil well in the United States.
1860-Abraham Lincoln is elected to the Republican platform because of his anti-slavery policy.
1861-1865- American Civil War separating The North from the Southern Confederate states. Jefferson Davis became president of the Confederate States of America. Slavery outlawed in USA (1863).
1862-The Homestead Act promised free land to settlers in the West.
1863-George G. Meade’s Union forced defeated Confederate troops led by Robert E. Lee in the Battle of Gettysburg. The next day, John C. Pemberton’s Confederate army surrendered to the Union forces of Ulysses S. Grant at Vicksburg. These defeats led to the encirclement of the Confederate states. Jan. 1, The Emancipation Proclamation issued declared all slaves free. Nov. 19, President Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address.
1865- On April 9, 1865 Gen. Ulysses S. Grant accepted the surrender of Confederate forces under Gen. Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia. Abraham Lincoln assassinated at Ford Theater by John Wilkes Booth (1865). The Reconstruction Era began under Andrew Johnson administration placing southern states under Federal control.
1866-Gregor Mendel published his discovery of the laws of heredity.
1867-The United States purchases Alaska from Russia. Secretary of State William H. Seward paid $7,200,000 for the territory. Alfred Nobel, a Swedish chemist, invents dynamite and later founded the Nobel prizes. The British North American Act established the Dominion of Canada.
1869-The Suez Canal opened. First Transcontinental Railroad of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads met at Promontory, Utah.
1870-King Victor Emmanuel’s Italian army had defeated the armies of the pope and captured Rome.
1871-Bismarck succeeded in uniting all of non-Hapsburg Germany under the Prussian king while Garibaldi succeeded in uniting all of Italy under the northern Italian king of Sardinia-Piedmont. Oct. 8, the Great Fire of Chicago killed 300 persons and in the same day a forest fire started in Peshtigo, Wisconsin killed 800 persons.
1872-Yellowstone was established by Congress as the first national park. Father Damien, a priest goes to the island of Molokai to care for the lepers that were exiled and forced to live in miserable surrounding abandoned by the outside world. Father Damien dedicated his life in helping the lepers of Molokai until his death.
1876-Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. Indians massacred general George A. Custer and his troops at the Battle of the Little Big Horn.
1877-Reconstruction Ended. Phonograph invented by Thomas A. Edison. The Nez Percé War under Chief Joseph begins.
1878-Founding of the Salvation Army.
1879-In America electric streetlights first used replaced gas-burning lamps.
1880-Thomas Edison granted the first patent for his incandescent light.
1883-The Brooklyn Bridge in New York was completed with a span of 1,595 feet the longest in the world at this time.
1884-World’s first skyscraper, the Home Insurance Building was built in Chicago.
1886-Oct. 28, Statue of Liberty, a gift from France to the United States was dedicated by President Grover Cleveland in New York. Geronimo and his Apache raiders surrender to the U. S. Army that ends the Indian fighting in Arizona.
1889-George Eastman developed a practical photographic film. Nelly Bly (Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman), an American newspaper journalist, makes a record trip around the world that takes 72 days.
1890-Settlement of the main areas of the western United States brought an end to the frontier.
1892-The Supreme Court ruling of Church of the Holy Trinity vs. United States proved that America is a Christian nation from the laws set forth by the Declaration of Independence of 1765 and the U.S. Constitution originating from the Bible.
1893-The canal at the Isthmus of Corinth is completed a successful undertaking since the reign of Nero.
1896-Henry Ford’s first car appeared on the streets of Detroit, Michigan.
1897-Austrian Theodor Herzl founded the Zionist movement. His idea from his publication, Jewish State based on his motives for gathering the scattered Jews and making a nation of their own. Herzl’s motivation came from the anti-Semitism in Europe increased by the Alfred Dreyfus case.
1898-The United States took control of Hawaii, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines following the Spanish-American War.
1899-The ancient city of Babylon is excavated. The gold bricks of the walls and the Ishtar gate are kept in the Pergomon Museum in Berlin, Germany. The beginning of the Boer War in South Africa.
1900-The American Baseball League organized later gained recognition as major league in 1903. Max Planck advanced the quantum theory. The Bible is now available in 524 languages.
1901-U.S. President William McKinley is assassinated. Theodore Roosevelt succeeds to presidency. The Australian states united to form a commonwealth. Ransom Eli Olds built 425 gasoline autos, which began the mass production of cars in the United States.
1902-End of the Boer War in South Africa is under British control.
1903-Wright Brother’s first flight at Kitty Hawk near Nags Head, North Carolina. Antoine H. Becquerel and Pierre and Marie Curie of France receive the Nobel Prize in physics for their discovery radioactivity and studying uranium.
1904-The outpouring of God’s Spirit begins the Welsh Revival movement of Pentecost in Wales through revival leader, Evan Roberts at his home church in Moriah Lougher within two years 100,000 converts were added to the Welsh Church and spreads to other parts of the British Isles and half way around the world to Azusa Street, Los Angeles, CA.
1905-Japan defeated Russia in the Russo-Japanese War at the Battle of Tsushima in the Korean Strait. Albert Einstein published his theory of relativity used to work out some basic problems of atomic energy.
1906-Theodore Roosevelt receives the Nobel Prize for negotiating peace in the Russo-Japanese War. Azusa Street Revival begins when William Seymour, a black pastor from Louisiana, traveled from Houston to Los Angeles, California only to be locked out of the white church that sent for him. Seymour turns to prayer and God answered that propels the Revival movement forward to others parts of the United States. The San Francisco earthquake destroyed large areas of the city and killed 452 persons. Albert Schweitzer published his book, The Quest of the Historical Jesus.
1907-Rudyard Kipling receives a Nobel Prize in literature for his novels, stories, and poems. His Jungle Book and Just So Stories are popular with children.
1908-June 30, the mysterious “Tunguska explosion” toppled trees across an 830 square mile region in central Russia. Scientists believe an exploding meteor falling from space caused the Tunguska event. Shortly after the Tunguska explosion, a few Russian farmers thought it signaled Armageddon, the end of the world would soon come. Henry Ford produces the first Model T automobile. W. C. Durant organized the General Motors Company. First public meeting of the Boy Scouts takes place. Giant asteroid hits Siberia creating large amount of damage and hundreds of craters in a very large area.
1909-Admiral Robert E. Peary discovered the North Pole.
1910-Thomas Edison demonstrates the first talking motion picture. Halley’s comet orbits across the earth.
1911-Marie Curie discovers radium and polonium, and isolated radium and studied its compounds. She received a Nobel Prize in chemistry for her discovery. This contributed to the field of radiology. Explorer Roald Amundsen discovered the South Pole.
1913-During the Woodrow Wilson administration under the control of Jewish Zionist Colonel E. Mandell House sets up the CFR, the IRS, and the Federal Reserve System as a central banking system in U.S. The law was rushed through Congress while members were away on holiday. Henry Ford began the first assembly line.
1914-The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austrian-Hungary by a Serbian starts World War I.
1914-1919-World War I begins.
1914-The armies of Joseph Joffre of France and John French of Great Britain forced invading German soldiers under Helmuth von Moltke to retreat at Marne from the approaches to Paris. Russia persecutes the Jewish people.
1915-May 7, A German submarine sank the Lusitania near the southern coast of Ireland which cost the lives of 1,198 people, including 128 Americans. This aroused anger in the United States, and contributed to the entry of the United States into World War I. Coast-to-coast telephone service is introduced in the U.S. linking New York City and San Francisco. The Ottoman Empire slaughters 1.2 million Armenians.
1916-Irish political rebellion against England. The Battle of Jutland confirmed British command of the seas under John Jellicoe in World War I, and forced Germany to adopt submarine warfare.
1917-The Aberdeen Proving Ground is established at Aberdeen, Maryland covering 74,870 acres extending along the shore of Chesapeake Bay. Virgin Island purchased by U.S. from Denmark. The Balfour Declaration is issued by the British government declaring the policy to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine. The British army under General Edmond Allenby defeats the Turks and enters Jerusalem. The American’s Creed won a nationwide contest for William Tyler Page of Maryland as the “best summary of the political faith of America.”
1917-1921-The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.
1918-Czar Nicholas II and his family are executed by the Bolsheviks (Communists) who seized the Russian government. His daughter Anastasia was believed to be the only survivor. World War I ends with the downfall of the Hapsburgs Dynasty. First air-mail service was established between New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. President Woodrow Wilson states his ‘Fourteen Points’ before Congress. Sept., British general Edmund Allenby defeated the armies of the Ottoman Empire in what became known as World War I’s “Battle of Megiddo.”
1919-The Treaty of Versailles ended World War I. John Alcock and Arthur Brown began the first nonstop transatlantic flight, Newfoundland to Ireland.
1920-Th Panama Canal opened. The League of Nations is established. First commercial radio broadcasts were made from Detroit and Pittsburgh. The Treaty of Sèvres marks a low point in Turkish power and history. It provided that Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia (present Iraq) would be “provisionally recognized as independent states to be advised by mandatory powers.” Turkey was to give up all territorial claims in northern Africa, and cede eastern Thrace to Greece, Smyrna (present Izmir) and the Ionian region to Greece for five years. West Virginia Mine Wars begin at Matewan over dispute in organizing unions and ends a year later.
1921-Albert Einstein received the Nobel Prize in physics for the use of the quantum theory to explain the photoelectric effect that resulted in the photoelectric cell or “electric eye,” which made possible sound motion pictures, television, and many other inventions. Henry Ford, Sr. warns that the Talmudists and their allies would attack Christianity and promote interfaith and equality with Christianity for all pagan non-European religions.
1922-The U.S.S.R. established. In Italy, Benito Mussolini leads his Fascists to power. A fire in Izmir (Smyrna), Turkey killed 2,000 persons.
1923-Albert Schweitzer completed the first two volumes of his monumental work The Philosophy of Civilization. These were The Decay and Restoration of Civilization and Civilization and Ethics. Henry Sullivan swam across the English Channel.
1924-Eric Liddell whose character inspired Chariots of Fire becomes an Olympic medallist and later becomes a missionary in war-torn China.
1925-Balto, an Eskimo dog, led a dog team that carried diphtheria serum 600 miles through an Alaskan blizzard from Nenana to Nome.
1926-Robert Goddard launched the first gas-fueled rocket. Archaeologist Leonard Woolley uncovers the royal cemetery at Ur in Iraq.
1927-Charles Lindbergh is the first to fly solo in the Spirit of St. Louis across the Atlantic. First “talking” motion picture, The Jazz Singer, was produced. Sound pictures appear in American Theaters. China’s Nationalist-Communist Civil War begins lasting for 10 years (1937).
1928-Buddy, a German shepherd became the first seeing-eye dog for the blind.
1929-Stock Market Crash in New York City. Italian ruler Benito Mussolini signed the Lateran Treaty with the papacy, which established papal sovereignty over Vatican City and made Mussolini’s government the first Italian government in modern history to be recognized officially by the pope. Graf Zeppelin made the first airship flight around the earth in 21 days.
1930-1940-The Great Depression.
1930-Winston Churchill published an article entitled “The Unites States of Europe” in the Saturday Evening Post. He encouraged a federation of European nations on the continent.
1931-Jane Addams founder of Hull House in Chicago shares the Nobel peace prize with Nicholas Murray Butler. Radio broadcasting begins from the U.S. coast-to-coast.
1933-Adolf Hitler becomes dictator of Germany. In the U.S. the New Deal began with the “Hundred Days.” Congress passed emergency laws to end the depression. Wiley Post, an American aviator, made the first solo flight around the world in 7 days, 18 hours, and 49 ½ minutes.
1934-In July Vienna, Austria is taken over by the Nazi party with the assassination of the country’s Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss, a Christian Socialist. Chancellor Adolf Hitler assumes leadership of the Nazi regime in the country making it part of the German Reich.
1935-Social Security Act passed by U.S. Congress to provide assistance to the aged and unemployed. The giant Hoover Dam along the Colorado River is completed in Arizona.
1936-Joseph Stalin purges 13 million Soviet civilians under his regime in a period of 2 years. Jesse Owens won Olympic Games championships at Berlin, Germany in the 100-meter dash, 200-meter dash, and running broad jump.
1937-The Hindenburg Crash marked the end of the use of airships for passenger service. The Hindenburg burst into flames while landing at Lakehurst, N.J. Thirty-six persons died in the disaster.
1939-1945-Germany invades Poland starting World War II. During Adolf Hitler’s and Nazi reign of terror millions of Jews, gypsies, and others are sent to death camps making it the Holocaust in the history of mankind.
1940-The Redstone Arsenal at Huntsville, Alabama becomes a center of rocket and spacecraft research.
1941-Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, Hawaii resulting in the U.S. entrance into World War II. Commercial television began in the United States. The Allied forces defeat the Axis forces and gain control of Africa.
1942-Battle of Midway began. American carrier forces under Raymond A. Spruance crippled the Japanese fleet under Isoroku Yamamoto and saved Midway Island from invasion a turning point of World War II. A fire at the Cocoanut Grove in Boston killed 499 persons.
1943-Casablanca Conference opened.
1944-Dwight D. Eisenhower’s Allied force invaded Normandy on D-Day, defending Axis soldiers under Karl Gerd von Runstedt. This is a turning point for World War II and a victory for the U.S. forces. The United States destroyed Japan’s last remaining naval power and assured Allied victory in World War II at the Battle of Leyte Gulf off the Philippine coast. Rev. Kenneth Goff writes the book, Traitors in the Pulpit, using documentation that the Communist Party trained Christian ministers to take over key positions in theological seminaries and colleges to produce “Christless Christians” who would subvert Christianity to promote atheism, Socialism, Communism, and Talmudism.
1945-The Atomic Age first bomb tested July 16 in New Mexico. Atomic bombs used in warfare dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on Aug. 6. World War II ended on May 8 in Europe and in the Pacific on September 2. The United Nations is established in New York City by the Jewish cabalists. An Arab shepherd found the first group of Dead Sea Scrolls in a cave near Jericho.
1946-The Cold War begins. China’s Nationalist defeated by the Communists conflict that ends in 1949.
1947-Secretary of State George C. Marshall describes the Marshall Plan. United Nations partitions Jerusalem. The city is divided between Arab and Jewish control. The first group of Dead Sea Scrolls was discovered by a Bedouin shepherd boy in a cave in the Qumran Valley. Great Britain granted India independence with the help of Mahatma Gandhi. Partitioning of India and Pakistan causes violent rioting between Hindus and Moslems.
1948-The Marshall Plan under President Harry S. Truman and carried out by Dean G. Acheson helped save Europe from collapse after World War II, and prevented the spread of Communism. Jan. 18, a Brahman who feared Gandhi’s program of tolerance for all creeds and religions assassinates Mahatma Mohandas K. Gandhi while on his way to a prayer meeting. Twelve days before Gandhi planned to end bloodshed among Hindu, Moslem, and other groups. Israel becomes an independent nation on May 15 founded by the Jewish cabalists-the Rothchilds and other Judeo-Masonic conspirators (This same group will later install Bill Clinton and George W. Bush in the White House and elevate Russian KGB Chief Vladimir Putin to power in the Kremlin. They now oversee the media and Hollywood and are in charge of America’s CIA, FBI, and Federal Reserve banking system). Israel successfully defends itself against the first attack of the Arab League. David Ben-Gurion becomes Israel’s first prime minister, considered “the father of Israel.” Ben-Gurion was quoted “If Israel is to survive we must go back to the Bible. Not the Talmud, not the Gemara, not the Mishnah (written by man). It must be the Bible (written by God).” If this is true, it is known that Ben-Gurion was a Mason and a Leninist (Socialist/Communist) terrorist agent. Communists are atheists. Israel’s Zionists and the secret Mossad (Israel’s spy corps) plan to destroy the United States of America and de-Christianize society.
1949-The United States and its allies Canada, Great Britain, France set up the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) General Dwight D. Eisenhower served as the first supreme commander under President Harry Truman.
1950-Republican Senator Joseph R. McCarthy (Wis.) attracts public attention by accusing the Department of State of harboring a number of communists. He made investigations of alleged communist influence and infiltration into the government. Communist invasion on South Korea from North Korea begins the Korean War.
1951-Joseph R. McCarthy’s book, America’s Retreat from Victory published. Kathleen Kenyon led excavations at Jericho that proved it to be one of the oldest known settled communities. Australia joined the United States and New Zealand in signing the ANZUS Treaty.
1952-Harry S. Truman and Congress signed into law a National Day of Prayer. C.S. Lewis’s Mere Christianity published. Elizabeth II becomes Queen of England. McCarthyism: The Fight for America published. July 1, Michael Ventris announces on BBC that he has deciphered Linear B. The U.S. detonates the first megaton-class hydrogen bomb in the Marshall Islands. The KKK marches down Pennsylvania Ave. in Washington carrying U.S. flags instead of the rebel flag. The rebel flag represents the defense of constitutional government and states’ rights against federal tyranny. It continues to be a symbol of remembrance and protest against usurped federal powers.
1953-Sir Edmund Hillary, a New Zealander beekeeper, mountaineer and philanthropist conquers the summit of Mount Everest in the Himalayans, Nepal (died Jan. 10, 2008).
1954-Joseph McCarthy and Secretary of the Army Robert T. Stevens were central figures in stormy congressional hearings over the communist allegations that attracted national attention. The Nautilus, first atomic-powered ship in the world, launched.
1954-1957-Billy Graham crusades in London & New York.
1955-Jonas E. Salk develops the Polio vaccine. Israel opened the first section of pipeline to carry water from the River Jordan to farms in the Negev.
1956-Construction began on the 41,000-mile Federal Interstate Highway System. Suez Crisis, Israel sided with the British and France against Egypt in an attempt to take back the Suez Canal seized by Egypt’s revolutionary government. A mine fire in Marcinelle, Belgium kills 262 persons.
1957-A year of history for prophecy and the countdown to Christ’s return. The European Ideal began with the signing of the Treaty of Rome instituted a Common Market, known as the EEC (European Economic Community) consisting of France, West Germany, Italy and the three Benelux states that will lead to the European Union. (Rev. 13:1-8; Daniel 7:23) Russia opened the Space Age by launching Sputnik I, the first artifical satellite to circle the earth. Russian scientists also send the first space traveler in orbit, Laika, a small terrier inside an artifical earth satellite, Sputnik II. Albert Schweitzer went on record as opposing further atomic weapons tests because of the danger of radioactive fallout to mankind.
1958-America launched its first space satellite, Explorer I. The computer modem is invented. Mao Zedong’s “Great Leap Forward” in China killed 38 million civilian and military in a period of 5 years second only to World War II causalities that claimed 55 million lives.
1959-The National Radio Astronomy Observatory began operating at Green Bank, West Virginia.
1960-The laser is invented. The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is established at Huntsville, Alabama. Israeli agents capture Nazi officer Adolf Eichmann in Argentina. Eichmann played a leading part in the killing of Jews during World War II.
1961-Russian Yuri A. Gorgarin is first man in space. Telstar I satellite launched to relay television programs between U.S. and Europe. Berlin Wall built by communists to stop the flow of East German refugees into West Berlin. The Peace Corps established to help underdeveloped countries to improve living conditions.
1962-Feb. 20, John H. Glenn, Jr. first American in orbit over the Earth. During the Kennedy Administration, Cuban Missile Crisis, Russia agreed to U.S. demands that missiles be removed from Cuba, ending a serious Cold War crisis. On June 25, Engle vs. Vitale, Prayer in schools vs. U.S. Supreme Court. Prayers and Bible reading are removed from public schools (Since the removal of prayer and the Bible in school violence has increased more each year. Isn’t this telling us something?). Vatican II opens. Linus Pauling, who discovered Vitamin C, received a Nobel Prize for peace for affecting a ban on nuclear weapons. John Steinbeck receives Nobel Prize for literature for his novels, especially The Winter of Our Discontent. After a long trial, the Israeli government hanged Adolf Eichmann for his Nazi war crimes against the Jews. The United States gave missiles to Israel to offset weapons Russia gave neighboring Arab countries.
1963-U.S. President John F. Kennedy assassinated in Dallas, Texas. Lyndon B. Johnson becomes president. C.S. Lewis, author of the Chronicles of Narnia, The Screwtape Letters, Out of the Silent Planet, Space Trilogy, The Allegory of Love and Mere Christianity dies on November 22. The Freedom March demonstration takes place from Montgomery, Alabama to Washington, D.C. Bible in schools vs. U.S. Supreme Court that no bible reading in schools were permitted. The passenger ship Lakonia catches fire in the Atlantic Ocean that kills 128 persons.
1964-Martin Luther King, Jr. receives a Nobel Prize for peace for leading the Negro struggle for equality in the U.S. through nonviolent means. The giant Glen Canyon Dam is completed in Page, Arizona. Israel began drawing water from the River Jordan to irrigate the farms in the Negev.
1965-Oct. 4, Pope Paul VI makes the first papal visit to the United States. The Jesus movement began out of the time of political and social unrest of the U.S. It was the Jesus music that eased a desperately changing world. Popular gospel artists were Keith Green, Love Song, John Fischer, Jamie Owens, Andrae Crouch, Darrell Mansfield, Honeytree, Terry Clark, Barry McGuire, 2nd Chapter of Acts, and many others (film, First Love).
1966-First spacecraft Soviet Luna 9 lands on the moon. Mao Zedong’s “Cultural Revolution” in China killed 11 million civilian and military in a period of 4 years.
1967-During the Six-Day War, Israel captures all of Jerusalem, putting it under Jewish rule for the first time since the Roman destruction in 70AD.
1968-Martin Luther King, Jr. assassinated. Moslems assassinate Senator Robert F. Kennedy.
1969-Apollo 11 lands on the moon with crew, Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin. Golda Meir becomes Israeli prime minister. Meir is quoted, “Arab sovereignty in Jerusalem just cannot be. This city will not be divided, not half and half, not 60-40, not 75-25, nothing.” Secretary of State William Rogers proposes plan for Israeli pullout from lands occupied in the 1967 war in exchange for peace with Jerusalem unified and just settlement for Palestinian refugees. Israel rejects it; Arab states insist instead on a UN-imposed withdrawal to pre-1967 lines. Peter Stoner, professor at the Westmont College in Santa Barbara, CA, author of Science Speaks proves that the prophecies of the Messiah in the Old Testament are those of Jesus Christ of the New Testament.
1972-Arab terrorists kidnap and murdered Israeli Olympic athletes in Munich, West Germany.
1973-Yom Kippur War the Israeli take control of Jerusalem since 70AD. President Nixon placed U.S. military forces on nuclear alert when the Soviet Union threatened to intervene in the Middle East war between Israel and its Arab neighbors. May 14, First U. S. space station, Skylab launched. Watergate Trials. Nixon Impeachment. U.S. Supreme Court decision of Roe vs. Wade, that gives the rights of women to practice abortion in America.
1975-New York’s World Trade Center opens. Secretary of State Kissinger mediates an agreement whereby Israel would return to Egypt areas of Sinai Peninsula and oil fields. Agreement is carried out, followed two years later by breakthrough in faux peace talks.
1976-The United States celebrates its 200th birthday. In Nov., the United States vetoes Vietnam’s application by membership in the United Nations. In Dec., the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries announces a bi-level price hike this included Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
1977-Jimmy Carter is sworn in as 39th President of the United States of America. President Carter’s first action is to pardon most Vietnam War draft evaders. Israel Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin visits President Carter to discuss Geneva peace talks on the Middle East. President Carter warns Americans about the coming energy crisis and accuses oil industry on capitalizing on the crisis. President Carter addresses the UN General Assembly on disarmament and control of nuclear technology. The blockbuster movie Star Wars opens nationwide that begins an entertainment phenomenon.
1978-The Camp David Accords during the Carter Administration. U.S. President Jimmy Carter, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin strike out accords in which Israel agrees to return Sinai in exchange for peace and to work toward Palestinian authority Sinai in returned-a cool peace survives but talks on sovereignty fade.
1979-Sept. 1, Pioneer 11 reaches Saturn. Moslems took the U.S. Embassy in Iran taking hostages. Oct. 22-26, The Pyramid fields from Giza to Dahshur, Ancient Thebes and Persepolis are among the properties added to the World Heritage List. Soviet Union at war in Afghanistan ending in 1988.
1980-May 18, Mt. Saint Helens erupts throwing ash and debris covering miles and claiming hundreds of lives. Photographer David Crocket of KOMO-TV was at the foot of the volcano when it erupted. Iran-Iraq War. Removal of the Ten Commandments in public schools. (Psalm 103:11-22) Blockbuster motion picture E.T. the Extraterrestrial is the top money making movie at this time. A remarkable revival takes place in China since the last missionaries left in 1953, by this time there are 2 million Christian believers in China (see, 2000).
1981-Greece is the 10th nation to be admitted to the European Union (Revelation 17). There will be 10 leaders that will receive power; they will give their authority to a single leader (Antichrist) in the future. A Turkish Muslim critically injures Pope John Paul in an assassination attempt. Pope John Paul recovers. There will be another attempt on his life a year later in 1982.
1982-U.S. President Ronald Reagan proposes settling the Arab-Israeli conflict based on U.N. resolutions calling for an Israeli pullout for territories occupied in 1967 and envisions a sovereign West Bank and Gaza in association with Jordan. Israel and Palestinians reject the plan.
1984-Iran Contra Affair under investigations during the Reagan Administration. President Ronald Reagan and military personnel, Oliver North was included in the worst operations uncovered of the firewall of government deceit and deception. In the public eye, President Reagan and Vice-President George H.W. Bush, Sr. (a former CIA director 1976-77) had ties to the CIA and Cuban exiles (Contras) that were involved in the drug trafficking surrounded around Cuba, Nicaragua, and the United States.
1985-Moslems commandeered the Achilles Lauro. Muslims hijacked TWA flight 847 in Athens, Greece.
1986-On Jan 28, the space shuttle Challenger exploded miles above the Earth that claimed the lives of six astronauts and civilian schoolteacher, Christa McClaiff. The Chernobyl nuclear explosion in the Ukraine region cause great devasation miles across Europe. Halley’s comet orbits pass the earth (next one will be about 2058).
1987-May 17, USS Stark in the Persian Gulf attacked by Iraqi aircraft in night raid. 37 sailors lost and 62 wounded. Fire breaks out and heroic crew is able to save ship. Russia’s Chernobyl nuclear plant melt-down clouds spreads as far as Norway.
1988-Moslems bombed Pan Am flight 103. Genocide of 100,000-200,000 Iraqi under Saddam Hussein. After the first Palestinian uprising, the Reagan Administration’s Secretary of State Shultz proposes a plan that forsees a three-year sovereignty period in the West Bank and Gaza and Palestinian recognition of Israel’s right to exist. Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir rejects the plan.
1989-On Nov. 9 rang out the fall of the Berlin Wall between East-West Germany.
1990-April 25, Hubble Space Telescope is launched. Iraq invades Kuwait. Maastricht Treaty proposes European monetary union.
1991-During the Bush Administration the U.S. led Persian Gulf War (Desert Storm) against Iraq and Saddam Hussein’s annexing of oil producing Kuwait. Most widely televised combat in history. August, the Russian Theater deception where agents release deadly gas with occupants inside. Ethiopian Jews return to Israel. The Madrid Conference the U.S. and Soviet Union invites Israel, Arab states and Palestinians to attend a peace conference in Madrid which is important in bringing warring sides to the same table and leads to direct joint and two-sided talks.
1992-Dismantling of the U.S.S.R. Plan set for the European Union on December 31 begins One World Order scheme. Los Angeles Riots breakout. Mall of America, the world’s largest mall opens in Minneapolis. Genocide of 200,000 Bosnians by the Serbians in a period of 3 years ending in 1995.
1993-Hale-Bott Comet is seen passing by earth. Northridge, CA earthquake hits parts of Los Angeles including Santa Monica. A bombing attempt was made on the World Trade Center Twin Towers in NYC. NAFTA signed Dec. by U.S.A., Canada and Mexico. Bankruptcies soar 1 million companies out-of-business. In the Oslo Accords, U.S. President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat sign a declaration of principles on sovereignty run by Palestinian authority, which negotiated in Oslo, Norway. Eventually the PA rules two-thirds of Gaza and about 40 percent of the West Bank including all Palestinian cities.
1994-Rwanda genocide against the Tutsis claims 800,000 lives. Oklahoma City Murrah Building Bombing. Waco, Texas Seventh-Day Adventist Davidian Sect Massacre-David Kersh Group vs. CIA, BATF & FBI. (2-Hour DVD-order# 1548)
1995-Israeli prime minister Itzhak Rabin is assassinated. Bob Geldof of the Irish band the Boomtown Rats organized LIVE Aid in America for Africa.
1996-Islamic War in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Islamic Serbia invasion.
1997-Hong Kong ends British rule and becomes China control. Mother Teresa dies after devoting her life to the poor. Princess Diana of Wales dies in tragic car accident in Paris.
1998-Bombing of two U.S. Embassies in Africa (Nairobi, Kenya) and Tanzania. Islamic Republic of Kosovo, Serbia massacres of ethnic Albanians.
1999-U.S. President Bill Clinton acquitted during impeachment trial. April 19, Columbine High School tragic shootings of students and teachers in Colorado by two Columbine students. Among the fatalities was Rachel Scott for declaring her faith in Jesus Christ.
2000-Suicide Bombing attack in the U.S.S. Cole Destroyer. Report on AIDS released claiming 19 million people died worldwide, another 34 million infected with HIV. During the Camp David II talks, US. President Bill Clinton, Yasser Arafat, and Israeli primer Ehud Barak meet-Barak proposes a Palestinian state in Gaza and most of the West Bank, with a foothold in Jerusalem, and rejects Palestinian demands for a “right of return.” Arafat rejects the proposal and a new Palestinian uprising breaks out. Ariel Sharon is elected Israel’s leader and Israeli reoccupies many PA zones. Etowah Co. Circuit Judge Roy Moore is elected Chief Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court. Moore later rose to national attention when he was sued by the ACLU for displaying the Ten Commandments in his courtroom. There are approximately 75 million Chinese Christian believers living in China. God chose to have the missionaries removed before the explosive growth occurred, that He might receive the glory.
2001-Sept. 11, Supposed Moslem Terrorists attack the U.S. bringing down the Twin Towers in NYC (actual remote controlled planes), the Pentagon in Washington, DC (believed to be a Global Hawk used to destroy it). Flight 93 went down in a Pennsylvania field called Lamb Field along Shank Road (This was a staged event, recorded voices were not those of the passengers and the plane was remote controlled). Some believe this was a conspiracy in the U.S. government headed by Israeli secret agents with the Bush administration high-ups, the secret government (Israeli Zionists), Jewish groups in the U.S.A. and the Illuminati engineered 9/11 and the bombing of the World Trade Center towers. Warning of coming disaster. In Oct-Nov, Anthrax threats surrounding the U.S. Postal Service. (Israel secretly funds Arab terror groups worldwide, causing citizens of America to hate Arabs and Moslems and support Israel.) Winfield, WV native and CIA operative Michael Spann dies in prison uprising in Mazar-e Sharif, Afghanistan. He is the first U.S. casualty in the war with Afghanistan.
2002-Sniper attacks in Washington D.C. and Virginia areas involving two suspects (John Muhammad and Lee Malvo). Both snipers were members of Islamic training camp located in Georgia. Pakistani cleric Sheikh Mubarak Gilani controls 35 Islamic terrorist communes inside America. Osama bin Laden (who worked for the CIA) is killed by Intel agents with connection to Pakistan ISI, Israel, and U.S.A. Zionists.
2003-March, the Bush Administration and the U.S. government declare war in Iraq (The war is an unprovoked, planned fraud). SARS epidemic in China & Canada. In August, blackout in several states on east and northeastern of U.S. including New York City, New England and Ohio. The Hubble Telescope detects the oldest known planet, 2003 UB313 beyond Pluto and its moon Charon; astronomers think it’s possible that our solar system may expand further. Aug., The Removal of Ten Commandments monument from the Montgomery, Alabama courthouse makes headlines. Oct. 15, China launches it’s first manned space mission. Sudanese government-backed janjaweed (Arab) militias launch new attacks on civilians. Thousands flee to Chad or forced to live in camps in Darfur, Sudan. After a series of failed U.S. and International efforts, George W. Bush Road Map backs the internationally authored peace plan calling for a Palestinian dismantling of militant groups, and Israeli freeze on settlement building, a Palestinian state along provisional borders by 2004 and a to-be-negotiated permanent settlement the following year. Both sides agree the first phase of the plan should be implemented before a peace deal is carried out (Bush and his Middle East Mason brothers planned this fraud since 1991).
2004-Tsunami disaster hits most of Southeast Asia killing thousands. Worldwide evangelism grows through TV and satellite broadcasts in over 52 languages. Mel Gibson’s controversial movie The Passion of the Christ becomes one of the biggest box office attractions of all time. Secretary of State Colin Powell says “genocide has been committed” referring to the atrocities in Darfur, Sudan. NFL Quarterback Pat Tillman is killed by “friendly fire” but death is suspected as a murder cover-up to prevent Tillman from returning to the U.S. to start an anti-war movement after witnessing fraudulent motives by the U.S. military higher-ups to wipeout the U.S. troops.
2005-Jan. 8, astronomers from the California Institute of Technology announce newly charted planet named Xena with its moon. July 26, Space shuttle Discovery returns to flight. Terrorists blow up London subway killing 52. In August, Hurricane Katrina devastation measures along the U.S. Gulf hitting Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. New Orleans flooded. Hurricane Rita follows hitting along Texas coast. Earthquakes in Southeast Asia hit, India, Pakistan and Afghanistan kills thousands. Death toll of Darfur, Sudan genocide estimate about 400,000 lives lost. Most were Christian martyrs.
2006-Sago Mine Disaster at Tallsmanville, WV, 12 miners dead 1 survivor. Death toll of American soldiers in Iraq rise to over 3, 000 mark. Russian school children are held hostage and later killed by Moslem terrorist. In July, Middle East crisis between Israel and Hezbollah in Lebanon hundreds of people are killed in the conflict.
2007-Cabalistic Year of 666 evils begins. March, Tsunami hits the Solomon Islands concern if there are any survivors. The month of April commemorates the 400th Jamestown anniversary of the founding of America, April 29th 1607 on the Virginia coast, Cape Henry dedicated to God by Robert Hunt. 400 years later America has drifted far from her religious foundation. The moral decay can only be healed by God’s Power. April, major tornado destroys Greenburg, Kansas. April 16, the deadliest shooting spree in U.S. history took place at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, VA leaving 32 dead including the killer, Seung H. Cho and 23 wounded. Cho was an English major student and son of South Korean immigrants with a disturbing past of violence and mental illness. Major flooding in the Midwest covers five states. Droughts, flooding and wildfires in various states from California to the Southwest into Texas cause billions of dollars in damages. Rise of violent crimes in most major cities. Terrorists attempt to bomb London airport (June). Russia withdraws from INF Treaty (agreement between Putin and Reagan). Aug., earthquake hits Peru death toll climbs above 500. A proclamation of Ten Commandments Day on the first Sunday in the month of May is declared. Sept., Iran president Muhammed Ahemadinajad visits the U.S. (Iran’s goal to annihilate Israel from the face of the earth). Threat of more attacks by terrorists with major hit in USA. Immorality continues on the rises. Homosexuality, witchcraft, Satanism, sexual immortality, murder, idolatry, and self-love are the “norm” of the day. I pray that there will be a wake up call for America one last time to bring revival and repentance to heal the United States of America and other nations. America can do nothing without the help of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. God have mercy on us all (2 Chronicles 7:14, Psalm 50:22-23). On a good note, scientists discover millions of exoplanets in the vast universe, possibly more (Could the Creator be expanding the universe?).
2008-May 15th Enforcement of the National I.D. is postponed until May 2009 that will initiate plans of implementing microchips in all living creatures, people and animals, on the earth (making way for the Mark of the Beast). Upcoming election for November predicts that Hillary Clinton would inherit George W. Bush’s Orwellian Police State. Future agenda, Orthodox Jews influence U.S. Congress to endorse Talmudic Noahide Laws, which call for the beheading by sword or guillotine of all Christians and other idolaters. (Are these about to come to past? If so, how much freedom and liberty do the American people have in the United States?). January, Al Queda (bogus name) terrorist group led by the Israeli Mossad assassinates Pakistani leader Benazir Bhutto in Islamabad. Death toll rises to 4,000 U.S. soldiers in Iraq. In the same month (Jan. 9, 2008, 28 Tevet 5768, occult numerology of 666), George W. Bush arrives in Israel and is presented a scroll by Rabbis Adan Steinzaltz of the Sanhedrin, Chaim Reichman and Dr. Gadi Schel identifying the U.S. President as the Chief Prince of Meshech and Tubal (Ezekiel 38:1-3) Leader of the West (Gog, of the land of Magog). This is contrary to what the Bible prophecies. By March, election polls show that Democratic candidate, Barak Obama leads Clinton and the Republican candidate, John McCain leads the party. Nehemiah’s wall is excavated in Jerusalem is the second proof that the Bible is authentic (the first proof is Noah’s Ark in Mt. Ararat). Feb, Deadly storms hit 5 U.S. southern states leaving 57 people dead. Several university and college shootings around the U.S. since January and are increasing. Conspiracy within the U.S government and foreign agents exposed published in the London news. Beginnings of a Recession takes it’s total. It is predicted that 2 million jobs will be lost this year. Predator loaners foreclose on American homeowners who owe real property loans with high interest rate. In April, Earthquake measuring 4.6 hits Illinois and other states along the Wabash Basin fault line (Mark 13:8). The entire town of Suffolk, VA is wiped out by a tornado; miraculously there are no fatalities. May 3, a devastating cyclone struck Burma (Myanmar) claiming over 50,000 lives and countless homeless. China was hit by a 7.4 earthquake claiming in the numbers of thousands topping 67,000 many are left homeless (Matthew 24:6-8). Oct., the New York Stock Market fallout is aid by government bailout. Unemployment continues to rise. Nov., Barak Obama is elected U.S. President.
2009-Enforcement of the National I.D. (The Beast) to resume on May 15 and to be implemented by 2012.
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In the near future:
<![if !supportLists]>§ <![endif]>The next event-The Rapture, the Coming of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ who will call all believers home evacuating from the Judgment that will come upon the earth.
<![if !supportLists]>§ <![endif]>Countdown to the Seven-Year Tribulation and the Judgment of God follows.
<![if !supportLists]>§ <![endif]>At the end of the Tribulation period the armies of the Antichrist march to the Battle of Armageddon on the fields of Jezreel Valley and Petra Valley 200 miles long to fight against Christ and the armies of heaven.
<![if !supportLists]>§ <![endif]>The Return of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ to end the final war before man will destroy himself and the earth (evidence of nuclear war). (Matt. 24:22)
<![if !supportLists]>§ <![endif]>God’s Kingdom reigns during The Millennium. Jesus Christ reigns from Jerusalem the new capital of earth. The saints will reign along with Christ.
<![if !supportLists]>§ <![endif]>At the end of the Millennium, the final battle between God and Satan. Satan is cast into Hell. The Great White Throne Judgment of the wicked are sentenced to eternal punishment.
<![if !supportLists]>§ <![endif]>Eternity. God and His Son, Jesus Christ will reign forever and ever. AMEN.
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*Personal Note-At this time, when we turn on the evening news these days hoping for something good, but things seems to get dimmer at time ticks by. It’s a sign that time is running out. I ask all of you if you would take a moment of your time and examine yourself and the lives of those around you. If you only had one more day left in history what would you do? After this earth has passed away as God’s Word said it would. Where will you be? According to the Jesus Christ this age will come to an end. Implementation is set up for the National ID card with microchip to be enforced May 15, 2008 that will deceive millions in taking the “mark of the beast-666.” Currently, published on September 9, 2007 the implementation of the VeriChip microchip is here. This microchip is the size of two grains of rice placed together. These are astonishing times we live in. The next event to happen in this present time is the Rapture. This will be the evacuation of all the believers by Christ to escape the coming Tribulation coming upon the earth (I Thessalonians 4:16-18). The Tribulation will last 7 years. During this time will be worldwide devastation that has ever been in the history of man. There will appear on the stage of history a world leader that will deceive the whole world with the help of the false prophet from the apostate church to tell the world he’s the Messiah, but he’s not. Don’t be deceived by these two sons of perdition. This world leader known as the antichrist in the Bible is the devil incarnate. The antichrist will make a peace treaty with Israel and will break it in three years. During the middle of the tribulation the antichrist will be assassinated, but will be resurrected by Satan. The antichrist will be Satan on earth bringing death and destruction. Just before the Tribulation will end, Jesus and his saints will return to put an end to all the carnage of Armageddon, and he will cast the antichrist and the false prophet into the lake of fire and bound Satan in the bottomless pit. This will begin the Millennium with the coming of God’s Kingdom on earth and Christ will reign from Jerusalem along with his saints. Don’t be left behind to suffer the Tribulation. You can escape, too. Don’t believe other false religions that don’t give hope of eternal life only darkness. All you have to do is to trust and believe in Christ Jesus and His Word. Jesus is God Himself, the only begotten Son of the living God. He came to earth about 2,000 years ago to save you from your sins. He gave his life for you on a terrible cross and a horrible death he didn’t deserve. But there is proof of an empty tomb that he rose on the third day after his crucifixion. Jesus is the only way to the Father and to eternal life. He’s the only one who can forgive you for your sins. Just call on his name and believe that God raised him from the dead and you’ll be saved. It’s that simple. All you have to do is live a holy life trusting in Jesus, talk to Jesus each day in prayer, read your Bible daily it’s God’s instruction manual to you, and witness your faith to others. After the tribulation and all evil are destroyed there will be peace and joy in a new earth and new heaven. All former things are passed away forever. No matter where we’ll spend life after this age it is sure we will live for eternity in Heaven or Hell. Is it hard to believe? Well one day maybe you can ask God yourself face-to-face.
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Thank you for sending your son Jesus Christ to die for my sins. According to your Word, I believe on the Lord Jesus Christ as my savior and that you raised him from the dead that I am saved by the blood he shed on the cross at Calvary. I turn from my sins and I will live for you and follow you all the days of my life. Thank you for saving me and making me your child. Fill me with your Holy Spirit and guide me each day in your mercy and grace. In the name of Christ Jesus my Lord. AMEN.
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Whosoever shall call upon the name of the LORD shall be saved. — Romans 8:10
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Greater is He (Jesus) who is in you than he (the Evil One, Satan) who is in the world. – I John 4:4
Be ready for battle. Read Ephesians 6:10-18 and be prepared in truth, the Spirit, peace, faith, righteousness, and salvation.
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By the Grace of Almighty God We Will Survive! Glory and Praise to the Father God (Yahweh) and his son our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. All kingdoms will become his and he will reign forever and ever. AMEN!
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The Jewish Cyclopedia
Foxe, John. Foxe’s Book of Martyrs
Ogwyn, John H. The United States and Great Britain in Prophecy, originally Herbert W. Armstrong
Hunt, Dave. Israel, Islam, and Armageddon
Bible History online
Josephus on Jesus, The Free Dictionary by Farlex
Whiston, William. The Works of Flavius Joseph, translated
McBirnie, William Steuart, Ph. D., The Search for the Twelve Apostles, Revised Edition
Bible Research Handbook
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
Smith, William, A Dictionary of Christian Biographies
Lewis, Lionel, St. Joseph of Arimathea at Glastonbury
Atiya, Aziz S., History of Eastern Christianity
The Venerable Bede, A History of the English Church and People
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Comments are welcome, e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org
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This chart was compiled as proof that the prophecies in the Holy Bible are the true Word of God. About 90% of prophecy has been fulfilled up to our present time (2008). We are the generation to see the coming of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. According to some doomsday prophets predict the end of the world about December 12, 2012. In the words of Jesus, “And in the morning, it will be foul weather to day: for the sky is red and lowering. O ye hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky; but can ye not discern the signs of the times?” (Matthew 16:3). But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only. (Matthew 24:36, 42, 44, 50; 25:13) Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come. Therefore be ye also ready: for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of man cometh. The lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour that he is not aware of… Watch therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour wherein the Son of man cometh.
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UPDATED: November 28, 2008 Friday 6:09pm